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Current Affairs 09 February 2024

  1. Tribal groups oppose scrapping India-Myanmar FMR
  2. Bharat Ratna conferred to former Prime Ministers
  3. RBI’s Inflation target
  4. Pradhan Mantri Matsya Kisan Samridhi Sah-Yojana
  5. Periodic labour force survey, 2022-23
  6. Kyasanur Forest Disease


Context:

The tribal groups of Manipur and Mizoram are opposing the decision of the Government to end the Free Movement Regime (FMR) between Indian and Myanmar.

  • As per the statement issued by the Home Ministry, the decision to end India-Myanmar FMR is to maintain the country’s internal security and demographic structure of north-eastern states.

Relevance:

GS II: International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Free Movement Regime (FMR) between India and Myanmar: A Shift in Policy
  2. Indo-Myanmar Border Dynamics: Security and Border Management

Free Movement Regime (FMR) between India and Myanmar: A Shift in Policy

Introduction to FMR:

  • The Free Movement Regime (FMR) is a bilateral agreement between India and Myanmar allowing border tribes to travel up to 16 km inside the other country without a visa.
  • Launched in 2018 as part of the Act East policy, it aimed to promote movement, trade, and cultural exchange among ethnically similar communities along the border.

Historical Context:

  • The boundary demarcated by the British in 1826 divided ethnically similar communities into two nations.
  • FMR intended to address this by enabling free movement without visas, fostering local trade and business.

Current Status:

  • FMR has been defunct since 2020, initially due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Post the military coup in Myanmar (2021), and escalating refugee crises, India suspended FMR in September 2022.
  • Concerns arose over unintended consequences, such as illegal immigration, drug trafficking, and gun-running.

New Development:

  • The Indian government has decided to conclude the Free Movement Regime with Myanmar.
  • Initiatives include initiating tenders for an advanced smart fencing system along the entire India-Myanmar border.

Rationale for the Shift:

  • Insurgent groups exploit FMR to conduct attacks on the Indian side and escape to Myanmar.
  • The move aims to curb illegal immigration, drug smuggling, and gold trafficking.
  • In September 2023, Manipur’s Chief Minister advocated winding up FMR to address concerns related to illegal immigration.

Challenges:

  • Potential opposition from states like Nagaland and Mizoram.
  • While acknowledging state concerns, border security and management fall under the Centre’s jurisdiction.

Indo-Myanmar Border Dynamics: Security and Border Management

Border Characteristics:

  • The Indo-Myanmar border spans 1,643 km, with states like Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, and Mizoram sharing this boundary.
  • The demarcation of 1,472 km out of the total length has been completed, leaving two un-demarcated portions in Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur.

Security Concerns:

  • Secessionist Movements:
    • Greater Nagaland movement destabilizes the border, aspiring to include areas from both India and Myanmar.
  • Support to Insurgents and Terrorism:
    • Insurgents in India’s North Eastern states maintain ties with groups in Myanmar, receiving political, economic, logistic, and military support.
    • The porous border facilitates insurgent safe havens.
  • Narcotics Smuggling:
    • India’s proximity to the Golden Triangle results in rampant drug trafficking, especially synthetic drugs to and from Myanmar.

Border Management Measures:

  • Security Forces:
    • The Assam Rifles, known as “Friends of the North East People,” is deployed along the Indo-Myanmar border.
  • Modern Surveillance and Security Tools:
    • Deployment of modern weapons and equipment like UAVs, BFSRs, and Laser Range Finders for effective border security.
  • Border Fencing:
    • Initiatives to fence the border to curb infiltration, smuggling, and illegal activities.
  • Comprehensive Border Infrastructure Project:
    • Undertaking a comprehensive project to enhance infrastructure along the India-Myanmar border.
  • Integrated Check Posts (ICPs):
    • Setting up ICPs at major entry points on land borders for streamlined cross-border movements.
  • Border Area Development Programme (BADP):
    • MHA’s developmental initiatives under BADP contribute to a holistic approach to border management.

-Source: The Hindu, The Indian Express



Context:

The Government of India announced Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award for former Prime Ministers PV Narasimha Rao and Chaudhary Charan Singh as well as agricultural scientist MS Swaminathan.

Relevance:

Facts for Prelims

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About PV Narasimha Rao:
  2. About Chaudhary Charan Singh
  3. About M.S. Swaminathan
  4. About Bharat Ratna

About PV Narasimha Rao:

  • PV Narasimha Rao was born on 28th June 1921 in erstwhile Nizam’s Hyderabad state.
  • He was a freedom fighter, academician, and literary figure.
  • His term as the Prime Minister of India was 1991-1996.
  • He was born to a farmer’s family in Lanepalli (Telangana’s Warangal District.)
  • He was a pioneer of all rural economies and rural welfare.
  • The sectors where he made initiatives to bring development are (but not limited to):
    • Clean Water
    •  Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas
    • Primary health care
    • Primary Education sector
    • Empowerment of Artisans
    • Animal Husbandry and Poultry
    • Small Industries
    • Khadi and Village Industries
    • Textiles, etc.
  • He is also called as the pioneer of inclusive growth.

During his Tenure:

  • The fund to implement schemes for rural development was increased to Rs.30000 crores in the 8th Five Year Plan, from Rs. 7000 crore in Seventh Five Year Plan.
  • The foreign exchange had increased 15 fold in 1996. It was Rs. 3000 crores in 1991.
  • With his economic reforms, the GDP hovered around 7-7.5 percent.
  • He published ‘SahasraPhan’, a Hindi translation of the famous Telugu Novel ‘Veyi Padagalu’.
  • He sought to dismantle the restrictions imposed under the license raj, reduce red tape and make Indian industries more competitive. 
  • He is known for bringing the policy of economic liberalisation in India.
  • The economic liberalisation in India is referred to the liberalisation of the country’s economic policies.
  • It was initiated in 1991 with the goal of making the economy more market- and service-oriented, and expanding the role of private and foreign investment.
  • In terms of foreign policy, he established diplomatic relations with Israel.
  • The Look East Policy of India was also initiated during his tenure.
  • He is also known for reversing decades of unfriendly relations between India and the United States by bringing them together.
  • The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments Act empowering local bodies were enacted during his tenure.

About Chaudhary Charan Singh:

  • Chaudhary Charan Singh was a prominent Indian politician and statesman who served as the fifth Prime Minister of India from 1979 to 1980. He was born on December 23, 1902, in the village of Noorpur in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
  • The National Farmers Day is celebrated on December 23, the birth anniversary of Chaudhary Charan Singh.
  • He was a member of the Indian National Congress party, but he later joined the Bharatiya Kranti Dal and later the Bharatiya Lok Dal, which he helped to found. He was known for his strong support for the rights of farmers and his efforts to improve the lives of the rural poor.
  • He was active in the Indian independence movement and served as a member of the Constituent Assembly that drafted the Constitution of India.
  • He later served as the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and as the Deputy Prime Minister of India under Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
  • After the collapse of the Gandhi government in 1979, Charan Singh was appointed as the Prime Minister of India, leading a minority government that lasted for only a few months before being voted out of power.

About M.S. Swaminathan:

When it comes to the transformation of India’s agricultural landscape, one name resonates above all: M.S. Swaminathan.

As the mastermind behind the Green Revolution in India, his vision and work have reshaped the country’s farming, taking it from famine to plenty.

Early Life and Education

Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan was born in the temple town of Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu, in 1925. He embarked on his academic journey studying agriculture at the University of Madras.

His insatiable curiosity led him overseas, earning a Ph.D. in genetics from the renowned University of Cambridge by 1952.

Pioneering the Green Revolution

Post his return to India, he joined the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi. The late 1950s witnessed the inception of his most impactful work—developing high-yielding crop varieties.

Collaborating with the likes of the American agronomist Norman Borlaug, Swaminathan developed strains resilient against pests and diseases, ensuring a higher grain yield.

Breakthrough with Kalyan Sona

1966 marked a turning point with the introduction of ‘Kalyan Sona.’ This variety of wheat was a game-changer.

It had a formidable resistance to rust, a notorious wheat disease, and boasted a yield double that of traditional counterparts. Following its path, several high-yield varieties emerged, redefining India’s agricultural production.

Beyond the Green Revolution

While the Green Revolution was a monumental success, it wasn’t without its challenges. The revolution saw unintended consequences like environmental degradation and a widening gap between the affluent and impoverished farmers.

Ever the visionary, Swaminathan emphasized the urgent need for a more sustainable approach to agriculture, advocating for a balanced ecosystem and equal benefits for all farming stakeholders.

Recognition and Legacy

Swaminathan’s profound impact on the agricultural sector has been acknowledged globally. His accolades include the World Food Prize, the esteemed Ramon Magsaysay Award, and India’s second-highest civilian honor, the Padma Vibhushan.

Furthermore, his esteemed membership in global institutions like the National Academy of Sciences, the Indian National Science Academy, and the Royal Society of London cements his legacy.

About Bharat Ratna:

  • Highest Civilian Award: Bharat Ratna, instituted in 1954, stands as the highest civilian award in India.

Eligibility:

  • Inclusive Criteria: The award is open to any individual without distinction of race, occupation, position, or gender. While predominantly awarded to India-born citizens, exceptions include the naturalized citizen Mother Teresa and non-Indians such as Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Nelson Mandela.

Special Considerations:

  • Posthumous Awards: Originally, posthumous awards were not permitted, but the statutes were amended in 1955 to allow them. Lal Bahadur Shastri became the first posthumous recipient.

Recognition Criteria:

  • Exceptional Service: Conferred in recognition of exceptional service or performance of the highest order across any field of human endeavor.

Nomination Process:

  • Prime Minister’s Recommendation: The Prime Minister recommends the awardees to the President, and no formal recommendations are required.

Limitations:

  • Annual Cap: The number of awards is capped at a maximum of three per year.

Award Components:

  • Recognition: Recipients receive a Sanad (certificate) signed by the President and a medallion. However, the award does not carry any monetary grant.

-Source:  The Indian Express



Context:

Recently, the Reserve Bank Governor Shaktikanta Das on Thursday emphasised on achieving the four-per cent inflation target for providing the necessary bedrock for sustainable growth.

Relevance:

GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Monetary Policy Review
  2. Understanding Inflation: Definition and Impact
  3. Methodology for Assessing Inflation Causes
  4. Causes of Inflation in Recent Years in India

Monetary Policy Review

  • The Reserve Bank of India’s  Monetary Policy Committee  (MPC) has set the Inflation target at 4% within a band of plus or minus 2 per cent for sustainable economic growth.
  • Key facts:
    • Headline inflation moderated to an average of 5.5 per cent during April-December 2023 from 6.7 per cent during 2022-23.
    • However, the food price inflation continued to remain volatile.
    • The deflation in consumer price index (CPI) fuel deepened.
    • Core Inflation moderated to a four-year low of 3.8 per cent in December.
    • As per the data released by the National Statistical Office (NSO), Retail inflation surged to a four-month high of 5.69 per cent in December driven by higher prices of food items such as pulses, spices, fruits and vegetables.

Understanding Inflation: Definition and Impact

Definition of Inflation:

  • Inflation, according to the International Monetary Fund, is the rate of increase in prices over a specified period, encompassing a broad measure of overall price increases or specific goods and services.
  • It signifies the rising cost of living, indicating the increase in the expense of a set of goods and/or services over a defined period, typically a year.

Impact of Inflation in India:

  • In India, the impact of inflation is particularly significant, given economic disparities and a large population.

Causes of Inflation:

  • Demand-Pull Inflation:
    • Occurs when the demand for goods and services surpasses their supply.
    • High overall demand in the economy prompts consumers to pay more for available goods and services, resulting in a general price increase.
    • A booming economy with substantial consumer spending can create excess demand, exerting upward pressure on prices.
  • Cost-Push Inflation:
    • Driven by an increase in the production costs for goods and services.
    • Factors such as increased incomes, rising costs of raw materials, or disruptions in the supply chain contribute to this type of inflation.
  • Built-In or Wage-Price Inflation:
    • Described as a feedback loop between wages and prices.
    • When workers demand higher wages, businesses may raise prices to cover increased labor costs.
    • Collective bargaining by labor unions can lead to higher wages, escalating production costs and subsequently causing higher prices for goods and services.

Methodology for Assessing Inflation Causes

Monthly Shifts in Prices and Quantities:

  • Inflation’s nature is determined by unforeseen shifts in prices and quantities within a month.
  • Demand-driven inflation occurs when prices and quantities move in the same direction, while supply-driven inflation sees prices and quantities moving in opposite directions.

Supply-Driven Inflation Indicators:

  • Unexpected changes in prices and quantities moving in opposite directions indicate supply-driven inflation.
  • A decrease in supply linked with a lower volume but increased prices, and vice versa, characterizes supply-driven inflation.

Combining Demand and Supply Factors:

  • Assessing overall headline inflation involves combining demand and supply factors at the sub-group level using CPI weights.

Headline Inflation Measurement:

  • Headline inflation is a comprehensive measure of total inflation within an economy, encompassing volatile commodities like food and energy.
  • Calculated through the Consumer Price Index (CPI), it determines inflation by assessing the cost of purchasing a fixed basket of goods.

Causes of Inflation in Recent Years in India

Impact of Covid-19 Waves:

  • Supply disruptions during both Covid-19 waves were the primary contributors to inflation.
  • Pandemic-induced lockdowns led to a significant drop in production and demand, causing a sharp decline in economic growth.
  • Weakened demand during this phase also led to a reduction in commodity prices.

Reopening Challenges:

  • The reopening of the economy, coupled with vaccine distribution and pent-up demand release, resulted in a faster recovery of demand compared to supply.
  • This imbalance exerted upward pressure on commodity prices.
  • The Russia-Ukraine conflict in 2022 intensified supply chain challenges, compounding commodity price pressures.

-Source: The Hindu, The Indian Express



Context:

The Governemnt has recently approved the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Kisan Samridhi Sah-Yojana, a sub scheme of Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada.

  • The Cabinet has also approved the extension of the Fisheries Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF) for another 3 years up to 2025-26.
    • To address the infrastructure requirement for the fisheries sector, the Government during 2018-19 created the Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF).

Relevance:

GS II- Government Policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Pradhan Mantri Matsya Kisan Samridhi Sah-Yojana
  2. About Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana

About Pradhan Mantri Matsya Kisan Samridhi Sah-Yojana:

  • The Union Cabinet has approved Pradhan Mantri Matsya Kisan Samridhi Sah-Yojana, a Central Sector sub-scheme under the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada for the fisheries sector.
  • The scheme will be implemented for 4  years from FY 2023-24 to FY 2026-27 across all the States and UTs.
  • Aim:
    • The scheme will help to formalize the fisheries sector and enhance access to institutional credit.
  • Fund Allocated:
    • A total of 6000 crore rupees have been earmarked for the scheme over the next 4 years.
  • Finance:
    • About 3,000 crore rupees will come from public finance including the World Bank and the AFD external financing, and the remaining 50 percent will be contributed by the beneficiaries from the private sector.
  • Significance:
    • The initiative will support 6.4 lakh micro-enterprises and 5,500 fisheries cooperatives, providing access to institutional credit.     
    • This sub-scheme will help to create a National Fisheries Digital Platform to provide 40 lakh small and micro-enterprises work-based identities.        

About Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana

  • Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) was launched in 2020 to bring about Blue Revolution through the sustainable development of the fisheries sector over a period of five years (2020-2025).
  • It is an umbrella scheme to develop the fisheries sector with a total outlay of Rs. 20050 crores.

It has two components

  • The Central Sector Scheme (CS) component with a non-beneficiary-oriented scheme and a Beneficiary oriented scheme (Central Assistance for General Category – 40%; SC/ST/Women – 60%).
  • Central Sponsored Scheme (CSS) component also with a non-beneficiary-oriented scheme and Beneficiary oriented scheme. The different break-ups of funding are: Central Assistance for Northeastern States – 90%, Other States – 60%; and UTs – 100%.

The areas expected to be covered by the PMMSY are:

  • Fish production
  • Fisheries productivity
  • Quality of fisheries and aquaculture sectors
  • Post-harvest infrastructure and management
  • Modernization of value chain
  • Welfare of the fishers and fish farmers
  • Fisheries management framework

Insurance coverage:

The insurance coverage provided under the PMMSY includes

  • Rs.5,00,000/- against accidental death or permanent total disability,
  • Rs.2,50,000/- for permanent partial disability
  • Hospitalization expenses in the event of accident for a sum of Rs. 25,000/-.

The objectives of the PMMSY are:

  • Develop fisheries and aquaculture sectors.
  • Harness the potential of fisheries sector in a sustainable, responsible, inclusive and equitable manner
  • Efficient use of land and water resources to enhance fish production and productivity.
  • Modernize value chain considering post-harvest management and quality improvement.
  • Double fishers and fish farmers’ incomes
  • Generate employment in the fisheries sector.
  • Enhance fisheries sector’s contribution to overall agricultural Gross Value Added (GVA) and exports.
  • Provide social, economic and physical security to fish farmers and fishermen.
  • Develop a robust fisheries management and regulatory framework.

-Source:  All India Radio, PIB



Context:

The Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) is conducted by the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation (MoSPI) and the survey period is July to June every year.

Relevance:

GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Details of the PLFS -2022-23
  2. Definition of Unemployment
  3. Measurement of Unemployment Rate
  4. Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) Overview
  5. Challenges in Measuring Unemployment in India
  6. The Way Ahead for Addressing Unemployment in India

Details of the PLFS -2022-23:

  • The data on Employment and Unemployment is collected through Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) which is conducted by the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation (MoSPI) since 2017-18. 
  • The estimated Unemployment Rate (UR) on usual status for persons of age 15 years and above of different general education level during 2021-22 and 2022-23 is as follows:
  • As per the data, the rate of unemployment has a declining trend across different education levels.

Definition of Unemployment:

  • ILO’s Perspective: According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO), unemployment refers to the state of being without a job, actively seeking employment opportunities, and being available to engage in work.
  • Clarity: Therefore, someone who has lost their job but does not actively seek another job is not considered unemployed. This highlights that joblessness is not equivalent to unemployment.

Measurement of Unemployment Rate:

  • Formula: The unemployment rate is calculated as the ratio of the number of unemployed individuals to the total labour force.
  • Labour Force: The labour force is defined as the sum of those who are currently employed and those who are actively seeking employment (the unemployed).
  • Exclusion: Individuals such as students and those involved in unpaid domestic work who do not fall into either the employed or unemployed categories are considered outside the labour force.
  • Factors Affecting the Unemployment Rate: The unemployment rate can decrease if an economy fails to generate enough job opportunities or if individuals decide not to actively search for work.

Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) Overview:

  • The Periodic Labour Force Survey was launched by the National Statistical Office (NSO) in April 2017.
  • The survey was initiated to address the need for more frequent and timely availability of labor force data.

Objectives:

  • To estimate key employment and unemployment indicators within a short time interval of three months specifically for urban areas using the “Current Weekly Status” (CWS) approach.
  • To estimate employment and unemployment indicators annually using both the “Usual Status” (ps+ss) and CWS approaches for both rural and urban areas.

Indicators:

The PLFS focuses on estimating the following indicators:

  • Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR): It represents the percentage of individuals in the population who are part of the labor force, which includes those who are employed, seeking work, or available for work.
  • Worker Population Ratio (WPR): This indicator represents the percentage of employed individuals in the population.
  • Unemployment Rate (UR): The UR indicates the percentage of individuals who are unemployed among those in the labor force.

Current Weekly Status (CWS):

  • CWS refers to the activity status of individuals based on their activities during the preceding seven days before the survey.

Conducting Authority:

  • The Periodic Labour Force Survey is conducted by the National Sample Survey (NSO), which operates under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI).

Types of Unemployment in India

  • Disguised Unemployment: This is a situation in which more people are employed than are required. It is mostly seen in India’s agricultural and unorganised sectors.
  • Seasonal unemployment: Unemployment that happens only during particular seasons of the year. In India, agricultural labourers rarely work throughout the year.
  • Structural Unemployment: This is a type of unemployment that occurs when there is a mismatch between the jobs available and the abilities of the available workers.
  • Cyclical unemployment: Unemployment that rises during recessions and falls with economic expansion. It is mostly a phenomenon of capitalist economies.
  • Frictional Unemployment:  It is also known as Search Unemployment, is the time lag between jobs when someone is looking for a new job or moving jobs.

Causes of Unemployment in India

  • Jobs in the capitalist world have become highly specialised but India’s education system does not provide the right training and specialisation needed for these jobs.
  • In India nearly half of the workforce is dependent on Agriculture – even though agriculture is underdeveloped in India and only provides seasonal employment.
  • Mobility of labour in India is low due to factors like language, religion, and climate.
  • The industrial development had adverse effects on cottage and small industries – as the cottage industries fall, many artisans become unemployed.
  • Constant increase in population has been a big problem and one of the main causes of unemployment.
  • Certain work is prohibited for specific castes in some areas and this also contributes to unemployment.

Challenges in Measuring Unemployment in India:

Social Norms and Job Search:

  • In a developing economy like India, social norms and constraints often influence an individual’s decision to actively seek employment.
  • This can lead to an underestimation of the true unemployment rate.

Domestic Work Example:

  • A survey by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) found that a significant percentage of women engaged in domestic work expressed a willingness to work if job opportunities were available within their households.
  • However, since they were not actively looking for work, they would not be counted as unemployed.

Informal Nature of Jobs:

  • In contrast to developed economies where individuals typically hold year-round jobs, India’s informal economy results in frequent job transitions.
  • An individual may be unemployed one week but could have worked as a casual laborer the previous month and as a farmer for most of the year.

Differing Methodologies:

  • Various organizations use different methodologies for measuring unemployment.
  • For example, the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy classifies individuals based on their activity on the day preceding the interview.
  • This approach yields a higher unemployment rate but lower labor force participation rates because in an informal economy, there is a lower probability of individuals having work on any given day compared to longer reference periods of a week or a year.

Inaccurate Data Reflection:

  • Sometimes, the methodologies in use do not accurately reflect economic disruptions.
  • For example, the nationwide lockdown in March 2020 significantly impacted the Indian economy, but this was not immediately reflected in the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) unemployment rates, which cover a period from July of one year to June of the next. Consequently, unemployment rates measured under both UPSS and CWS standards decreased in 2019-20 and 2020-21.

Developing Economy Trade-off:

  • Measuring unemployment in a developing economy involves an inherent trade-off. Adopting a very short reference period results in higher unemployment rates but lower employment rates, while a longer reference period yields the opposite.
  • Developed nations face less of this dilemma due to their more industrialized economies, where work tends to be consistent throughout the year.

The Way Ahead for Addressing Unemployment in India:

  • Election Significance: Unemployment is becoming a crucial issue in upcoming elections. Therefore, it is essential to address it effectively.
  • Understanding Definitions and Measurements: To tackle unemployment successfully, it is imperative to have a clear understanding of how it is defined and measured in a developing economy like India. This understanding will aid in crafting more targeted and impactful policies to address the issue.

-Source: The Hindu, PIB



Context:

Two people from Karnataka since January 1, 2024 have died due to Kyasanur Forest Disease, a viral infection.

  • Since January 1, the Department of Health and Family Welfare has conducted 2,567 tests and 68 people have been found positive.

Relevance:

Prelims, GS-III: Science and Technology, GS-II: Social Justice (Health related issues)

About the Kyasanur Forest disease

  • Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a tick-borne viral haemorrhagic (accompanied by or produced by loss/escape of blood from a broken blood vessel, either inside or outside the body) fever ENDEMIC TO SOUTH-WESTERN PART OF INDIA.
  • The disease is caused by a virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae.
  • KFDV is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected hard ticks (Haemaphysalis spinigera) which act as a reservoir of KFDV.
  • Patients may experience abnormally low blood pressure, and low platelet, red blood cell, and white blood cell count.
  • A variety of animals are thought to be reservoir hosts for the disease, including porcupines, rats, squirrels, mice, and shrews.
  • Monkeys are the main amplifying hosts for KFD virus and they are also sufferers, hence, the name Monkey Fever.
  • Man is a terminal host and there no human-to-human transmission because the human domestic environment does not sustain the ticks.
  • Prevention is by vaccination, as well as preventive measures such as protective clothing and tick population control.

-Source: The Hindu


 

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