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Current Affairs 11 April 2024

  1. MNRE Reinstates 2021 ALMM List to Boost Local Solar Module Manufacturing
  2. WHO’s Global Hepatitis Report 2024 Highlights India’s Hepatitis Burden
  3. Review Highlights Limited Long-Term Protection from Vaccines
  4. Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) Machines
  5. India Successfully Eliminates Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar)
  6. India Enhances Timekeeping Infrastructure with Deployment of Atomic Clocks
  7. Coordinated Lunar Time


In March 2024, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) announced the re-implementation of its 2021 notification for the ‘Approved List of Models and Manufacturers of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Modules’, commonly referred to as the ALMM list. This move aims to bolster local sourcing of solar modules and bolster India’s renewable manufacturing ecosystem. However, the decision is perceived by many as imposing import restrictions on solar PV cells, potentially impacting the solar industry’s growth and dynamics in India.


GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What does the Approved List of Models and Manufacturers of Solar Photovoltaic Modules (ALMM list) entail?
  2. Solar PV Imports in India
  3. Initiatives by India to Boost Domestic Manufacturing
  4. Potential for Solar Energy in India

What does the Approved List of Models and Manufacturers of Solar Photovoltaic Modules (ALMM list) entail?


  • This compilation features manufacturers deemed suitable for Government Projects, projects with government assistance, and initiatives under government schemes.
  • It encompasses projects designated for selling electricity to both Central and State Governments.

Suspension of Rules for Two Years

  • The government withheld the enforcement of this list for a two-year period, without providing a definitive explanation.
  • Speculation suggests this hiatus arose due to concerns from renewable energy producers, especially those with pre-existing contracts to supply electricity to the government.
  • During this period, the majority of solar equipment imports originated from China due to cost-effectiveness.
  • India’s domestic renewable energy sector struggled to match the demand for solar equipment, given the competitive pricing by Chinese manufacturers.

Reinstating the Rule

  • The government reintroduced the rule in March 2024.
  • The decision to revive this list stems from the belief that initiatives like the Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme have bolstered Indian companies’ production capacities, enhancing their competitive pricing.

Objective of the PLI Scheme

  • The Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme is designed to stimulate investments in pivotal sectors, foster economies of scale, and elevate the competitiveness of Indian manufacturers.

Integration with the Atmanirbhar Bharat Programme

  • The scheme aligns with the Atmanirbhar Bharat (‘Self-Reliant India’) Programme.
  • The government now trusts that domestic companies can sufficiently meet the product demand within India.
  • This initiative primarily focuses on promoting domestic production as an alternative to imports, rather than imposing import restrictions.

Solar PV Imports in India

Reliance on China and Vietnam

  • India heavily relies on imports to fulfill its solar cell and module demands, with China and Vietnam emerging as the primary suppliers.

Import Figures

  • Government data presented to Parliament in February 2023 revealed that India imported solar cells and modules worth approximately $11.17 billion over the past five years.
  • Until January 2023-24, Ministry of Commerce data indicated that China constituted 53% of India’s solar cell imports and 63% of solar PV module imports.

Factors Behind China’s Dominance in Exports

  • China offers the most cost-effective manufacturing location for all solar PV supply chain components, primarily due to lower industrial power costs.

Impact of Electricity Costs on Production

  • Electricity contributes to over 40% of the production costs for polysilicon and nearly 20% for ingots and wafers.
  • Chinese government policies have prioritized solar PV as a strategic sector, fostering economies of scale and continuous innovation across the supply chain.

Initiatives by India to Boost Domestic Manufacturing

Implementation of the ALMM Order

  • The government announced the ALMM order in January 2019, but it gained prominence amidst significant global supply chain disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Launch of the PLI Scheme

  • Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman introduced the ₹19,500 crore PLI scheme in the Union Budget of 2022-23 to bolster domestic manufacturing across the solar supply chain, from polysilicon to solar modules.

Implementation of High Custom Duties

  • The government imposed a substantial 40% customs duty on PV modules and 25% on PV cells to encourage domestic manufacturing.

Potential for Solar Energy in India

Rising Demand

  • The government’s ambitious goal of achieving 500 GW of installed capacity from non-fossil fuels by 2030 drives the expansion of solar power in India.
  • India exhibits the fastest growth rate in electricity demand among major economies through 2026, fueled by robust economic activity and increasing consumption to mitigate extreme weather conditions.

Contribution of Solar Power to Renewable Energy Generation

  • Between April 2023 and February 2024, solar power accounted for approximately one-third of all energy generated from renewables.

Untapped Solar Energy Potential

  • India possesses an estimated solar power potential of 748.99 GW, indicating that the full potential of solar energy remains largely untapped.
  • The government is actively pursuing various schemes and programs to harness this available potential effectively.

-Source: The Hindu


The World Health Organisation (WHO) has spotlighted India in its recently released Global Hepatitis Report 2024, identifying the country as grappling with a substantial burden of viral hepatitis, notably Hepatitis B and C infections. This recognition underscores the urgent need for targeted interventions, public awareness campaigns, and healthcare initiatives to combat and reduce the prevalence of hepatitis in India, addressing both prevention and treatment strategies.


GS II: Health

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Key Findings of the Report
  2. Hepatitis: Types, Causes, and Symptoms

Key Findings of the Report

India’s Hepatitis Burden:
  • High Prevalence in India:
    • India ranks among the countries with the highest viral hepatitis burden globally.
    • An estimated 2.9 crore individuals live with Hepatitis B, and 0.55 crore with Hepatitis C.
    • In 2022, India reported over 50,000 new Hepatitis B cases and 1.4 lakh new Hepatitis C cases, resulting in 1.23 lakh deaths.
Drivers of Hepatitis Infections in India:
  • Transmission Modes:
    • Hepatitis B and C spread through various channels, including mother-to-child, unsafe blood transfusions, infected blood contact, and needle-sharing among drug users.
    • Mother-to-child transmission remains a predominant Hepatitis B infection route in India, despite improved blood safety measures.
Diagnosis and Treatment Coverage:
  • Low Diagnosis and Treatment Rates:
    • Only 2.4% of Hepatitis B cases and 28% of Hepatitis C cases in India are diagnosed.
    • Treatment rates stand at 0% for Hepatitis B and 21% for Hepatitis C, despite the availability of cost-effective generic medications.
Barriers to Enhancing Hepatitis Outcomes:
  • Challenges with National Viral Hepatitis Control Program:
    • Limited program reach and utilization hinder effective control of viral hepatitis.
    • There’s a pressing need to broaden access to affordable diagnostic and treatment services through the program.
    • Emphasis on treating all diagnosed individuals, irrespective of disease stage, to mitigate health impacts and transmission.

Global Insights:

  • Mortality Trends:
    • Viral hepatitis caused approximately 1.3 million global deaths in 2022, equating to tuberculosis mortality rates.
    • Hepatitis B contributed to 83% of these fatalities, while Hepatitis C accounted for 17%.
    • Increasing mortality rates suggest a surge in hepatitis-related liver cancer incidences and deaths.
  • Prevalence Statistics:
    • Globally, around 304 million people had hepatitis B and C in 2022.
    • WHO estimates indicate 254 million people had hepatitis B, and 50 million had hepatitis C in the same year.
    • Children constitute 12% of this burden, with hepatitis B being particularly prevalent among them.
  • Challenges in Testing and Treatment Expansion:
    • Insufficient funding and centralized services have limited the expansion of testing facilities.
    • Many countries do not procure hepatitis medicines at affordable generic rates, resulting in elevated costs.
    • Patent-related obstacles hinder access to cost-effective hepatitis C medications in certain nations.

Hepatitis: Types, Causes, and Symptoms

Hepatitis refers to the inflammation of the liver, a vital organ responsible for detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of biochemicals necessary for digestion. It can be caused by various factors, including viral infections, alcohol consumption, and autoimmune diseases. There are several types of hepatitis, each with different causes, symptoms, and treatments.

Types of Hepatitis

Hepatitis A (HAV)

  • Cause: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) transmitted through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with an infected person.
  • Symptoms: Fever, fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of skin and eyes), dark urine, and clay-colored stools. It does not lead to chronic illness.

Hepatitis B (HBV)

  • Cause: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmitted through contact with infected blood, semen, or other body fluids, as well as from mother to baby during childbirth.
  • Symptoms: Similar to HAV but can lead to chronic illness, liver cirrhosis, and liver cancer if left untreated.

Hepatitis C (HCV)

  • Cause: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmitted primarily through blood-to-blood contact, such as sharing needles or other drug-injection equipment.
  • Symptoms: Often asymptomatic in the early stages but can lead to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver cancer over time.

Hepatitis D (HDV)

  • Cause: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective virus that requires HBV for replication. It is transmitted through contact with infected blood or other body fluids.
  • Symptoms: Similar to HBV but often more severe. It can lead to a more rapid progression to liver cirrhosis and liver failure.

Hepatitis E (HEV)

  • Cause: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) transmitted mainly through contaminated water.
  • Symptoms: Similar to HAV, including jaundice, fatigue, nausea, and abdominal pain. It typically resolves on its own but can be severe in pregnant women.
Common Symptoms of Hepatitis
  • Fatigue
  • Jaundice (yellowing of skin and eyes)
  • Abdominal pain or discomfort
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Dark urine and pale stools
  • Joint pain
  • Fever

-Source: The Hindu


A recent review of several vaccines revealed that only five offer protection lasting more than 20 years, and merely three provide lifelong immunity. This variability in vaccine efficacy raises concerns about the durability and effectiveness of immunization strategies. The findings underscore the need for ongoing research and development to enhance vaccine longevity and effectiveness, addressing challenges associated with waning immunity and ensuring sustained protection against infectious diseases.


GS II: Health

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Vaccines and Immunological Mechanism Explained
  2. Vaccine and its Efficacy
  3. Factors Influencing Vaccine Efficacy

Vaccines and Immunological Mechanism Explained

What are Vaccines?
  • Definition: Vaccines are biological formulations designed to activate the immune system against specific pathogens like viruses or bacteria, without causing illness.
  • Composition: They often contain weakened or inactivated pathogens, pathogen parts, or toxins produced by the pathogen.
Immunological Mechanism of Vaccines:

Memory B Cells:

  • Formation: Generated in lymph nodes post-vaccination, these cells “remember” antigens, facilitating swift antibody production upon future antigen exposure.

T Cell Support:

  • Role: Memory B cells rely on T cell assistance; vaccines stimulating T cells can initiate memory B cell production.

Variability in B Cell Response:

  • Not all vaccines induce memory B cell production; some require regular boosters to prolong immunity.
  • Example: Measles and rubella vaccines sustain consistent memory B cell levels and antibody levels for decades, contrasting with chickenpox, tetanus, and diphtheria vaccines.

Long-Lasting Plasma Cells (LLPCs):

  • Migration: These cells move to the bone marrow and can persist for extended periods, contributing to vaccine-induced immunity.
  • Importance: LLPCs are crucial for enduring protection, representing an immunological “holy grail.” Vaccine development aims to generate LLPCs for sustained immunity.
  • Example: mRNA Covid-19 vaccines may not activate LLPCs in the bone marrow, potentially affecting long-term immunity.

Variability in Vaccine Efficacy:

  • Different vaccines have varying abilities to stimulate memory B cells and LLPCs, leading to differences in duration and effectiveness of immunity.

Vaccine and its Efficacy:

Measles Vaccine
Type: Live attenuated virus
Efficacy: One dose: Around 93% effective, Two doses: Around 97% effective
Schedule: Typically administered in two doses, first dose at 12-15 months and the second dose at 4-6 years
Duration: Lifelong protection for most individuals after two doses  
Rubella Vaccine
Type: Live attenuated virus (often combined with measles and mumps vaccine, known as MMR)
Efficacy: One dose: Around 95% effective Two doses: Over 99% effective
Schedule: Two doses, first at 12-15 months and the second at 4-6 years (usually given as MMR)
Duration: Lifelong protection for most individuals after two doses.
Yellow Fever Vaccine
Type: Live attenuated virus
Efficacy: Around 99% effective
Duration: Provides lifelong protection for most people
Schedule: Single dose, often required for travel to endemic regions  
Hepatitis B Vaccine
Type: Recombinant vaccine (contains viral surface antigen)
Efficacy: Three doses: Over 95% effective in preventing infection
Schedule: Three doses, typically given at 0, 1-2 months, and 6 months
Duration: Long-term protection, possibly lifelong for many individuals after completing the three-dose series  
Inactivated Hepatitis A Vaccine
Type: Inactivated virus
Efficacy: Two doses: Over 95% effective
Schedule: Two doses, first dose followed by a booster 6-12 months later
Duration: Protection for at least 20 years after completing the two-dose series, and possibly longer  

Factors Influencing Vaccine Efficacy

Vaccine efficacy is determined by various factors categorized into vaccine-related, pathogen-related, and host-related factors.

Vaccine-Related Factors:
  • Type of Vaccine:
    • Live Viral Vaccines: Vaccines like measles, rubella, yellow fever, chickenpox, and oral polio typically offer longer-lasting protection compared to killed or subunit vaccines.
  • Interval Between Doses:
    • Timing: A longer interval, ideally at least six months, between priming and booster doses is essential for eliciting a robust immune response.
Pathogen-Related Factors:
  • Nature of Infection:
    • Mucosal Infections: Pathogens causing mucosal infections, such as SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, can lead to frequent reinfections due to rapid transmission before the immune system responds adequately.
  • Genetic Stability:
    • Mutation Rates: RNA viruses like measles and SARS-CoV-2, which mutate frequently, may necessitate vaccine updates to maintain efficacy.
    • Vaccine Adaptation: While the measles vaccine remains stable, updates to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been required due to mutations.
Host-Related Factors:
  • Demographics:
    • Age, Gender, and Obesity: Factors like extreme ages, gender differences, and obesity can influence vaccine efficacy and the duration of protective immunity.

-Source: The Hindu


Recently, the Supreme Court announced that it would soon address petitions for 100% verification of Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) slips, just ahead of the first phase of voting on 19th April 2024.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of Article:

  1. Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) Machines:
  2. Challenges with VVPAT machines
  3. How has the Performance of EVMs been?

Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) Machines:

  • VVPAT is an independent verification printer that is attached to electronic voting machines (EVMs).
  • Its purpose is to allow voters to verify that their votes have been recorded accurately.
  • As soon as a voter presses the button on the EVM, the VVPAT machine prints a slip containing the name and symbol of the party they voted for, which is visible to the voter for around 7 seconds.
  • VVPAT Machines were first introduced in India during the 2014 Lok Sabha elections to increase transparency and eliminate doubts about the accuracy of EVMs.
  • Only polling officers have access to the VVPAT machines.
  • According to the Election Commission of India (ECI), EVMs and VVPATs are separate entities and are not connected to any network.

Challenges with VVPAT machines:

Technical malfunctions:

  • Possibility of technical malfunctions is a primary concern with VVPAT machines.
  • Malfunctions can result in inaccurate printing or no printing of the paper receipt of the vote cast by the voter.

Verification of paper trails:

  • Verification of paper trails generated by the VVPAT machines is another challenge.
  • It is not always clear how this record can be verified, especially in cases of discrepancies between electronic and paper records.

Public confidence:

  • Recent reports of defective VVPAT machines have eroded public confidence in the electoral process.
  • Lack of transparency and accountability on the part of the EC has raised questions about the fairness and accuracy of elections.

Legal mandate:

  • The Supreme Court in Dr. Subramanian Swamy v ECI (2013) held that VVPAT is an “indispensable requirement of free and fair elections”.

Arguments Raised:

  • Some argue that enhancing transparency could be achieved by maintaining a machine audit trail documenting all executed commands within the system, extending beyond the recorded votes in the EVM’s ballot unit and the printed slips in the VVPATs. This would enable an audit to eliminate any potential presence of malicious code.
  • Indeed, incorporating such measures could enhance the system’s resilience and be regarded as an improvement to the existing machines.
  • On the other hand, some argue that the introduction of VVPATs has introduced potential vulnerabilities that were absent in the standalone nature of EVMs, along with the technical and administrative safeguards that supported the previous system.
  • Addressing this concern would entail revising the safeguards to ensure that VVPAT-combined systems are as secure and dependable as standalone EVMs were.
  • However, many find the criticism from various quarters, including political parties such as the Congress, advocating for a 100% recount of all VVPATs instead of the current sampling method, incomprehensible.
  • They argue that only a comprehensive recount would ensure complete transparency. Consequently, the Supreme Court of India has scheduled a series of hearings regarding this demand.

How has the Performance of EVMs been?

  • Despite dire warnings regarding malpractices and EVM hacking, there has been no concrete evidence of any actual tampering with EVMs thus far.
  • While EVMs, like any machinery, have experienced glitches and have been promptly replaced in case of malfunctions, the assertion that they are susceptible to hacking or manipulation, despite the presence of existing technical and administrative safeguards, has been made without substantiated proof.
  • Sample counting of VVPATs, conducted during both the general election in 2019 and various Assembly elections, has indicated that the discrepancy between the VVPAT recount and the EVM count has been negligible.
  • Such discrepancies often stem from minor errors such as failure to delete mock polls from the machine before the voting process or inaccuracies in manually recording the final count from the machine.

-Source: The Hindu


India has successfully achieved its target to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis, commonly known as kala-azar, as confirmed by data from the National Centre for Vector Borne Diseases Control (NCVBDC).


GS III- Health, Prelims

About Kala Azar

  • Kala-azar is a slow progressing indigenous disease caused by a protozoan parasite of genus Leishmania.
  • In India Leishmania donovani is the only parasite causing this disease.
  • The Kala-azar is endemic to the Indian subcontinent in 119 districts in four countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal).
  • This disease is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world. Elimination is defined as reducing the annual incidence of Kala Azar (KA) to less than 1 case per 10,000 people at the sub-district level.
  • It is a neglected tropical disease affecting almost 100 countries.
  • Neglected tropical diseases are a diverse group of communicable diseases that prevail in tropical and subtropical conditions in 149 countries.
There are three types of leishmaniasis
  • Visceral leishmaniasis, which affects multiple organs and is the most serious form of the disease.
  • Cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores and is the most common form.
  • Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin and mucosal lesions.

The Visceral leishmaniasis, which is commonly known as Kala-azar in India, is fatal in over 95% of the cases, if left untreated.

Symptoms of Kala azar
  • It is associated with fever, loss of appetite (anorexia), fatigue, enlargement of the liver, spleen and nodes and suppression of the bone marrow.
  • It also increases the risk of other secondary infections.
Diagnosing Kala azar
  • The first oral drug found to be effective for treating kala-azar is miltefosine.
  • The most common method of diagnosing kala azar is by dipstick testing. However, this method is highly problematic.

Where has kala-azar been detected in India?

  • In West Bengal, the districts where the maximum number of cases were registered include Darjeeling, Malda, Uttar Dinajpur, Dakshin Dinajpur and Kalimpong.
  • The districts of Birbhum, Bankura, Purulia, and Murshidabad have also reported a few cases, while none have been detected in Kolkata yet.
  • The disease is endemic in Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
  • An estimated 165.4 million people are at risk, according to data from the National Centre for Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NCVBDC).
  • In the country as a whole, there has been a significant decline in cases over the years.
  • In 2014, around 9,200 cases were reported while in 2021 the number fell to 1,276 cases.

What does the treatment include?

  • Anti-leishmanial medicines are available for treatment.
  • Vector control is also recommended by the WHO, which means reducing or interrupting the transmission of disease by decreasing the number of sandflies in surroundings through insecticide spray, use of insecticide-treated nets, etc.
  • The government aimed to eliminate the disease in India by 2015, but that deadline was missed.
  • However, the number of cases has been brought down significantly through the National Kala-Azar Elimination Programme.
  • Medicines, insecticides and technical support were given by the central government, while state governments provided for costs involved in implementation.
  • The program was implemented through State/District Malaria Control Offices and the primary health care system.

-Source: Business Standards


India is set to deploy its own atomic clocks nationwide to bolster its timekeeping infrastructure and bolster national defense capabilities for the future. The initiative aims to synchronize all digital devices with Indian Standard Time (IST), ensuring uniformity and accuracy across the nation. Spearheaded by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) under the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, the installation of atomic clocks marks a significant step towards modernizing India’s timekeeping systems and strengthening its technological capabilities.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What are Atomic Clocks?
  2. Reasons for India’s Development of Atomic Clocks

What are Atomic Clocks?

  • Atomic clocks are highly accurate timekeeping devices that rely on the resonance frequencies of atoms, commonly cesium or rubidium, to measure time.
  • Atomic clocks were invented in 1955 by Louise Essen.
  • These clocks are incredibly precise, losing approximately one second every 100 million years.
  • Atomic clocks are currently operational in Ahmedabad and Faridabad.
Types of Atomic Clocks:
  • Cesium Atomic Beam Clock:
    • Accuracy: Offers high accuracy and good long-term stability.
  • Hydrogen Maser Clock:
    • Stability: Provides the best stability for short periods, up to a few hours.
  • Rubidium Gas Cell Clock:
    • Functionality: Utilizes rubidium atoms for timekeeping, offering a balance between accuracy and stability.
Working Principle of Atomic Clocks:

Electromagnetic Radiation Control:

  • Regulation: The electronic components of atomic clocks are controlled by microwave electromagnetic radiation (EM), maintaining precise frequency levels crucial for inducing quantum transitions in atoms.

Quantum Transitions:

  • Frequency Dependence: Quantum transitions (energy changes) in cesium or rubidium atoms occur only at specific radiation frequencies.

Time Measurement:

  • Feedback Loop: Atomic clocks observe and maintain these quantum transitions in a feedback loop.
  • Second Calculation: The waves generated during these quantum transitions are counted to determine the value of one second.
Reasons for India’s Development of Atomic Clocks


  • Context: The development of atomic clocks in India was initiated in response to the denial of Global Positioning System (GPS) information during the Kargil War.
  • Importance of Independent Timekeeping:
    • Defense and Security: Independent timekeeping capabilities are essential for defense operations, cybersecurity, and secure online transactions.
Enhanced Security Measures:

Optical Cable Connectivity:

  • Objective: Connecting atomic clocks via optical cables aims to enhance security by providing an alternative time dissemination method, reducing vulnerability to disruptions during emergencies or wartime.

Reduced Foreign Dependency:

  • Strategic Independence: Developing indigenous atomic clocks reduces India’s reliance on foreign atomic clocks, particularly for critical infrastructure like the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), also known as NavIC.
  • Complete Control: Owning and operating its atomic clocks enables India to maintain full control over its navigation systems, ensuring national security and technological independence.

-Source: Live Mint


Recently, the US White House officially directed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to create a time standard for the Moon, which different international bodies and private companies can use to coordinate their activities on the lunar surface.


GS III: Science and Technology

Coordinated Lunar Time (LTC) Overview

  • Purpose: LTC serves as a precise time-keeping standard for lunar spacecraft, satellites, and lunar missions, ensuring synchronized communication between satellites, astronauts, bases, and Earth.
  • Importance: A unified time standard is crucial for coordinating operations, ensuring transaction reliability, and managing lunar commerce logistics.
Need for LTC:
  • Time Dilation: Due to lower gravity on the Moon, time passes slightly faster compared to Earth.
  • Time Discrepancy: An Earth-based clock on the Moon would lose approximately 58.7 microseconds per Earth day, creating challenges for spacecraft docking, data transfer timing, communication, and navigation.
Earth’s Time Standard – Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
  • Definition: UTC is an internationally recognized time standard based on the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Paris, France.
  • Measurement: UTC is determined using a weighted average of over 400 atomic clocks worldwide.
Atomic Clocks:
  • Principle: Atomic clocks measure time based on the resonant frequencies of atoms, like cesium-133.
  • Accuracy: A second in atomic time corresponds to 9,192,631,770 vibrations of a cesium atom, offering high stability and precision.
Time Zone Calculation:
  • Local Time Determination: Countries adjust their local time relative to UTC based on their longitudinal position from the Greenwich meridian (0° longitude).
  • Direction of Adjustment: Countries west of the Greenwich meridian subtract hours from UTC, while those east of the meridian add hours to UTC.

-Source: Indian Express

May 2024