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Current Affairs 18 April 2024

  1. Delhi High Court Affirms Universality of Domestic Violence Act
  2. Supreme Court to Hear Petitions for 100% Cross-Verification of VVPAT with EVMs
  3. Indian Government Prioritizes Development of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  4. Green Bonds
  5. Gopi Thotakura to Become First Indian Space Tourist on Blue Origin’s NS-25 Mission
  6. Special Rupee Vostro Account
  7. New Blood Test Measures Ageing Pace through DNA Methylation


The Delhi High Court recently underscored the universal applicability of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act of 2005, asserting that it extends protection to all women irrespective of their religious or social background. The High Court made these observations while dismissing a plea filed by a husband and his relatives, challenging an appellate court order that had reinstated a domestic violence complaint filed by the wife. This landmark judgement reaffirms the commitment to uphold women’s rights and safeguard them from domestic violence, irrespective of their cultural, religious, or social affiliations.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is Domestic Violence?
  2. How Widespread is Domestic Violence in India?
  3. Legal Frameworks Addressing Domestic Violence in India
  4. Challenges in Enforcing Laws Against Domestic Violence

What is Domestic Violence?

  • Domestic violence refers to any form of abusive behavior in a domestic setting, typically involving a spouse or partner, which may be physical, sexual, emotional, or psychological.
Factors Contributing to Domestic Violence

Gender Gap in India

  • Wide gender gap in India contributes to a sense of male superiority and entitlement.
  • Men may use violence to assert dominance and reinforce perceived superiority.

Alcohol and Drug Misuse

  • Intoxication impairs judgment and exacerbates violent tendencies.
  • Leads to loss of inhibitions and escalation of conflicts into physical or verbal abuse.

Dowry System

  • Strong correlation between domestic violence and the dowry system.
  • Violence increases when dowry expectations are not met.
  • Despite the Dowry Prohibition Act 1961, cases of bride burning and dowry-related violence persist.

Financial Stress and Dependency

  • Financial stressors and dependency dynamics exacerbate tensions within relationships.

Traditional Beliefs and Gender Roles

  • Traditional beliefs perpetuate gender roles and power imbalances.
  • Patriarchal systems prioritize male authority and control over women.
  • Violence often stems from notions of ownership over women’s bodies, labor, and reproductive rights.

Desire for Dominance and Control

  • Desire for dominance and control over a partner stemming from insecurity or entitlement.

Social Conditioning

  • Marriage is often portrayed as the ultimate goal for women, reinforcing traditional gender roles.
  • Indian culture glorifies women who exhibit tolerance and submission, discouraging them from leaving abusive relationships.

Socio-economic Factors

  • Poverty and unemployment create additional stresses within households, increasing the likelihood of violent behavior.

Mental Health Conditions

  • Untreated mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, or personality disorders contribute to volatile behavior.

Lack of Awareness and Understanding

  • Limited understanding of healthy relationship dynamics and rights.
  • Ignorance about legal protections against domestic violence or available support services.
  • Many women lack awareness of their rights, perpetuating a cycle of low self-esteem and subjugation.

How Widespread is Domestic Violence in India?


  • 32% of ever-married women in India reported experiencing physical, sexual, or emotional violence by their husbands in their lifetime.
  • According to NFHS-5 (2019-2021), 29.3% of married Indian women (ages 18-49) have experienced domestic or sexual violence; 3.1% of pregnant women (ages 18-49) have suffered physical violence during pregnancy.
  • 87% of married women who are victims of marital violence do not seek help, according to NFHS data.
  • Many cases go unreported, with only a fraction making it to the police.

Legal Frameworks Addressing Domestic Violence in India

Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 (PWDVA)

  • Designed to safeguard women from domestic violence.
  • Encompasses physical, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse.
  • Offers various protective, residential, and relief measures.

Indian Penal Code, 1860 (Section 498A)

  • Addresses acts of cruelty by a husband or his relatives against a woman.
  • Criminalizes acts of harassment, cruelty, or torture.

Indian Evidence Act, 1872

  • Sets guidelines for evidence in legal proceedings.
  • Applicable in domestic violence-related cases.

Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961

  • Tackles offenses related to dowry.
  • Criminalizes the act of giving or receiving dowry.

National Commission for Women Act, 1990

  • Forms the National Commission for Women (NCW) to protect women’s rights.
  • NCW’s role includes addressing domestic violence issues.

Domestic Abuse in Same-Sex Relationships

  • Existing laws predominantly focus on heterosexual relationships.
  • Leaves same-sex couples vulnerable without adequate legal protection.
  • Recognizing same-sex marriages could broaden legal safeguards for same-sex couples.

Challenges in Enforcing Laws Against Domestic Violence

Social Stigma and Fear

  • Victims often refrain from reporting due to societal stigma, fear of reprisal, or concerns about family reputation.
  • Such reticence complicates authorities’ efforts to intervene.

Underreporting and Normalization

  • Many domestic violence incidents go unreported.
  • Victims might not identify certain behaviors as abusive or might see them as normal.

Limited Awareness

  • Many, including victims, are uninformed about their legal entitlements and available support.
  • Lack of awareness makes reporting and accessing legal assistance challenging.

Financial Dependence

  • Victims might rely financially on their abusers.
  • Concerns about economic consequences can deter them from seeking legal help.

Inadequate Training and Implementation

  • Law enforcement and judicial bodies might lack specialized training in handling domestic violence cases.
  • Varied enforcement of laws undermines their effectiveness.

Difficulty in Establishing Domestic Violence

  • Providing evidence of domestic violence in court can be challenging.
  • Absence of witnesses or physical evidence can undermine cases.

Impact on Family Relationships

  • Domestic violence often occurs within familial contexts.
  • Legal actions can strain family ties, dissuading victims from seeking legal remedies.

Cultural Norms and Practices

  • Cultural norms and practices influence the perception and handling of domestic violence.
  • Enforcement approaches need to accommodate these cultural nuances.

-Source: Indian Express


The Supreme Court has agreed to hear petitions that seek 100% cross-verification of the Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) slips with the vote count as per Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs). This decision comes in response to concerns raised about the accuracy and integrity of the electronic voting system and aims to enhance transparency and confidence in the electoral process. The hearing underscores the court’s commitment to ensuring fair and transparent elections and will likely have significant implications for future electoral procedures and safeguards in India.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article

  1. History of the Voting Process in India
  2. International Voting Practices
  3. Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) Machines
  4. How has the Performance of EVMs been?
  5. Strategies to Enhance the Robustness of the Voting Process

History of the Voting Process in India

First Two General Elections (1952 and 1957)

  • Separate boxes were provided for each candidate with their election symbol.
  • Voters dropped a blank ballot paper into the box of their chosen candidate.

Third General Election

  • Introduction of the ballot paper with names of candidates and their symbols.
  • Voters put a stamp on the candidate of their choice.

Introduction of Electronic Voting Machines (EVM)

  • EVMs were introduced on a trial basis in 1982 in the Paravur Assembly constituency in Kerala.
  • Fully deployed in all booths during the Assembly elections in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, and West Bengal in 2001.
  • Used in all 543 constituencies in the 2004 general elections to the Lok Sabha.

Introduction of Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT)

  • In the case of Subramanian Swamy versus Election Commission of India (2013), the Supreme Court ruled that a paper trail is essential for free and fair elections.
  • In the 2019 general elections, EVMs were backed with 100% VVPAT in all constituencies.

International Voting Practices

  • Western Democracies
    • Many western democracies still use paper ballots for their elections.
  • Countries that discontinued EVMs
    • England, France, The Netherlands, and the U.S. have stopped using EVMs for national or federal elections after trials in the last two decades.
  • Germany
    • The German Supreme Court declared the use of EVMs in elections unconstitutional in 2009.
  • EVM Usage in Other Countries
    • Brazil uses EVMs for their elections.
  • India’s Neighbours
    • Pakistan: Does not use EVMs.
    • Bangladesh: Experimented with EVMs in a few constituencies in 2018 but reverted to paper ballots for the general elections in 2024.

Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) Machines:

  • VVPAT is an independent verification printer that is attached to electronic voting machines (EVMs).
  • Its purpose is to allow voters to verify that their votes have been recorded accurately.
  • As soon as a voter presses the button on the EVM, the VVPAT machine prints a slip containing the name and symbol of the party they voted for, which is visible to the voter for around 7 seconds.
  • VVPAT Machines were first introduced in India during the 2014 Lok Sabha elections to increase transparency and eliminate doubts about the accuracy of EVMs.
  • Only polling officers have access to the VVPAT machines.
  • According to the Election Commission of India (ECI), EVMs and VVPATs are separate entities and are not connected to any network.

Challenges with VVPAT machines:

Technical malfunctions:

  • Possibility of technical malfunctions is a primary concern with VVPAT machines.
  • Malfunctions can result in inaccurate printing or no printing of the paper receipt of the vote cast by the voter.

Verification of paper trails:

  • Verification of paper trails generated by the VVPAT machines is another challenge.
  • It is not always clear how this record can be verified, especially in cases of discrepancies between electronic and paper records.

Public confidence:

  • Recent reports of defective VVPAT machines have eroded public confidence in the electoral process.
  • Lack of transparency and accountability on the part of the EC has raised questions about the fairness and accuracy of elections.

Legal mandate:

  • The Supreme Court in Dr. Subramanian Swamy v ECI (2013) held that VVPAT is an “indispensable requirement of free and fair elections”.

How has the Performance of EVMs been?

  • Despite dire warnings regarding malpractices and EVM hacking, there has been no concrete evidence of any actual tampering with EVMs thus far.
  • While EVMs, like any machinery, have experienced glitches and have been promptly replaced in case of malfunctions, the assertion that they are susceptible to hacking or manipulation, despite the presence of existing technical and administrative safeguards, has been made without substantiated proof.
  • Sample counting of VVPATs, conducted during both the general election in 2019 and various Assembly elections, has indicated that the discrepancy between the VVPAT recount and the EVM count has been negligible.
  • Such discrepancies often stem from minor errors such as failure to delete mock polls from the machine before the voting process or inaccuracies in manually recording the final count from the machine.

Strategies to Enhance the Robustness of the Voting Process

Scientific Sampling for EVM and VVPAT Matching

  • Adopt a scientific approach to determine the sample size for matching the EVM count with VVPAT slips.
  • A 100% match between EVM count and VVPAT slips is unscientific and cumbersome.
    • Error Resolution:
      • If even a single error is detected, all VVPAT slips for the concerned region should be fully counted to determine the results.
      • This approach will instill statistically significant confidence in the counting process.

Introduction of Totaliser Machines

  • Implement ‘totaliser’ machines at the booth level to aggregate votes from 15-20 EVMs before revealing the candidate-wise count.
  • This would provide a degree of cover for voters at the booth level and enhance the integrity of the voting process.

-Source: The Hindu


The Indian government’s renewed emphasis on the development of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI) highlights their strategic importance in the Indo-Pacific region. This focus has led to intensified efforts to bolster infrastructure and security measures in the islands.


GS III: Internal Security

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Strategic Importance of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  2. Challenges to the Development of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI)
  3. Strategic Infrastructure Development Needed in Andaman and Nicobar Islands (A&N Islands)
  4. Historical Overview of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Strategic Importance of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Geographical and Economic Significance

  • Located 700 nautical miles southeast of the Indian mainland.
  • Adds 300,000 sq km to India’s exclusive economic zone.
  • Potential for undersea hydrocarbon and mineral deposits.

Strategic Location

  • Positioned astride the Malacca Strait, a critical maritime choke point.
  • More than 90,000 merchant ships pass through annually, carrying about 30% of the world’s traded goods.

Maritime Boundaries

  • Shares boundaries with Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia, and Bangladesh.
  • Provides India with substantial ocean space under UNCLOS in terms of exclusive economic zone and continental shelf.

Defence and Security

  • Serves as the first line of defence against potential threats from the East, particularly amidst China’s growing influence in the Indo-Pacific.
  • Port Blair has the potential to become a regional hub for naval collaboration on disaster relief, medical aid, counter-piracy, search and rescue, and other maritime security initiatives.

Challenges to the Development of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI)

Policy Shift and Strategic Importance

  • Transition from India’s Look East policy to a more robust Act East policy.
  • Growing recognition of the islands’ strategic significance due to the increasing capabilities of the Chinese PLA Navy.

Lack of Prioritization

  • Historically, the islands have not been politically prioritized.
  • The islands’ strategic importance has only recently been acknowledged.

Infrastructure and Distance

  • Challenges in developing infrastructure due to the islands’ distance from the mainland.

Environmental and Regulatory Constraints

  • Complex environmental clearance procedures.
  • Regulations related to forest and tribal conservation pose challenges.

Coordination and Vision Conflict

  • Coordination challenges due to involvement of multiple ministries and agencies.
  • Conflict between long-term strategic vision and immediate political gains.

Strategic Infrastructure Development Needed in Andaman and Nicobar Islands (A&N Islands)

Maritime Domain Awareness and Surveillance

  • Ensure comprehensive surveillance and awareness over the islands.

Defence and Deterrence Capabilities

  • Strengthen deterrence against naval threats from the East.
  • Increase military forces and deploy appropriate assets at the Andaman Nicobar Command (ANC).
  • Base surveillance and fighter aircraft at ANC and conduct frequent detachments.

Maritime Economy Infrastructure

  • Develop infrastructure to support India’s maritime economy, especially in the southern group of islands.
  • Develop the Galathea Bay transhipment port on Great Nicobar Island.

Connectivity and Transportation

  • Improve transportation and connectivity to facilitate development and tourism.
  • Revitalize the plan to connect A&N Islands to the mainland through Submarine Optical Fibre Cable (OFC) for better and cheaper connectivity and access to Digital India’s benefits.
  • Reduce the islands’ dependence on mainland for essential supplies and services.
  • Establish high-speed inter-island ferry services and a seaplane terminal.

International Partnerships and Concessions

  • Explore partnerships with the Quad and Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative (IPOI) for development initiatives.
  • Seek infrastructure development concessions similar to those on India’s northern borders.

Historical Overview of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Historical Background

  • India’s association with the islands dates back to the aftermath of the 1857 War of Independence when the British established a penal colony for Indian revolutionaries.
  • The islands were occupied by the Japanese in 1942 and became the first part of India to be liberated from British rule in 1943 during Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose’s visit to Port Blair.
  • After the Japanese surrender in 1945, the British reoccupied the islands, which were later handed over to India on the eve of Independence.

Post-Independence Neglect and Development

  • The period from Independence until 1962 saw neglect due to their remote location and dark symbolism.
  • In 1962, a naval garrison was established due to concerns about a Chinese submarine.
  • The Andaman Nicobar Command (ANC) was established in Port Blair in 2001 after the post-Kargil War security review, marking India’s first joint and unified operational command.
  • The ANC, India’s first joint/unified operational command, places forces from all three services and the Coast Guard under a single commander-in-chief.

Geographical and Cultural Highlights

  • The Ten Degree Channel separates the Andaman Islands from the Nicobar Islands, located approximately at the 10-degree latitude mark.
  • Indira Point on Great Nicobar Island is the southernmost tip of the Nicobar Islands and India.
  • The ANI is home to 5 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups: Great Andamanese, Jarwas, Onges, Shompens, and North Sentinelese.

Development Projects and Proposals

  • NITI Aayog is undertaking a project for Great Nicobar that includes an international container transhipment terminal, an airport, a power plant, and a township.
  • A proposal for Little Andaman calls for the development of a new greenfield coastal city to compete with Singapore and Hong Kong.

Kra Canal Proposal

  • The Kra Canal is a proposed canal in Thailand aiming to connect the Gulf of Thailand with the Andaman Sea to create a shortcut for shipping between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea.

-Source: Indian Express


Recently, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) green lighted investments in the country’s Sovereign Green Bonds (SGrBs) by Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIS).


GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What are Green Bonds?
  2. How beneficial is it for investors?
  3. What Difference Between SGB and Other Bonds?
  4. Risks and Challenges

What are Green Bonds?

  • Green bonds are bonds issued by any sovereign entity, inter-governmental groups or alliances and corporates with the aim that the proceeds of the bonds are utilised for projects classified as environmentally sustainable.
  • The framework for the sovereign green bond was issued by the government on November 9, 2022.
Why are these bonds important?
  • Green Bonds have emerged as an important financial instrument to deal with the threats of climate change and related challenges.
  • According to the International Finance Corporation (IFC), a World Bank Group’s institution, climate change threatens communities and economies, and it poses risks for agriculture, food, and water supplies.
  • A lot of financing is needed to address these challenges. It’s critical to connect environmental projects with capital markets and investors and channel capital towards sustainable development – and Green Bonds are a way to make that connection.

How beneficial is it for investors?

  • Green Bonds offer investors a platform to engage in good practices, influencing the business strategy of bond issuers.
  • They provide a means to hedge against climate change risks while achieving at least similar, if not better, returns on their investment.
  • In this way, the growth in Green Bonds and green finance also indirectly works to disincentivise high carbon-emitting projects, as per the IFC.

What is the difference Between SGB and Other Bonds?

  • Sovereign green bonds (SGrBs) are a type of government bond issued to finance climate and environmental projects.
  • SGrBs are similar to other government bonds in that they have a maturity period and carry a coupon rate, but the proceeds from their sale are used specifically for green projects.
  • SGrBs are part of the government’s overall borrowing and will add to the government’s debt.
  • In India, the government has announced plans to borrow INR 16,000 crore through the issuance of SGrBs in H2 FY23 as part of a larger borrowing plan of INR 5.92 lakh crore through dated securities.

Risks and Challenges

  • One of the main risks associated with sovereign green bonds is the possibility of default. While the risk of default is generally low for sovereign bonds, it is important for investors to carefully consider the creditworthiness of the issuing government.
  • Another challenge is the lack of standardization and transparency in the market for sovereign green bonds. This can make it difficult for investors to compare the risks and returns of different bonds.
  • There is also a risk that the funds raised through the sale of sovereign green bonds may not be used effectively or may not have the intended impact on the environment. It is important for governments to carefully plan and monitor the use of these funds to ensure that they are used effectively.

-Source: The Hindu


Entrepreneur and pilot Gopi Thotakura is poised to make history as the first Indian to venture into space as a tourist on Blue Origin’s NS-25 Mission, founded by Jeff Bezos. Thotakura has been selected as one of the six crew members for the mission, the launch date of which is yet to be announced. If the mission is successful, Thotakura will follow in the footsteps of Wing Commander Rakesh Sharma, who became the first Indian to travel to space aboard a Soviet spacecraft to the Salyut 7 space station in 1984. This significant achievement highlights India’s growing presence and participation in the global space exploration sector.


GS III: Space

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Space Tourism
  2. Karman Line

Space Tourism


  • A sector of the aviation industry offering tourists the chance to experience space travel for leisure, recreation, or business.

Market Growth:

  • Valued at $848.28 million in 2023.
  • Expected to reach $27,861.99 million by 2032.
Types of Space Tourism:
  • Sub-orbital spaceflight:
    • Takes passengers just beyond the Kármán line (100 km above sea level).
    • Offers a few minutes in outer space before returning to Earth.
    • Example: Blue Origin’s New Shepherd mission.
  • Orbital spaceflight:
    • Takes passengers to an altitude of nearly 1.3 million feet.
    • Passengers can spend from a few days to over a week in space.
    • Example: SpaceX’s Falcon 9 mission in September 2021 took four passengers to an altitude of 160 km for three days in orbit.
  • Cost:
    • Typically, a passenger must pay at least a million dollars for the trip.
  • Environmental Concerns:
    • Rockets emit gaseous and solid chemicals into the upper atmosphere.
    • A 2022 study by UCL, University of Cambridge, and MIT found rocket soot emissions significantly warm the atmosphere.
  • Safety:
    • As of 2023, 676 people have flown into space with 19 fatalities, resulting in an approximate 3% fatality rate.

Karman Line


  • An imaginary boundary that marks the boundary between Earth’s atmosphere and outer space, situated at 100 km (62 miles) above sea level.


  • Named after aerospace pioneer Theodore von Kármán.
  • Established by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) in the 1960s.


  • An aircraft or spacecraft crossing the Karman line is classified as a spaceflight.
  • Individuals crossing this line are officially recognized as astronauts.
  • Aerodynamics vs Orbital Mechanics:
    • Below the Kármán line, flight is dominated by aerodynamic principles.
    • Above the line, orbital mechanics become more crucial.
  • Atmospheric Conditions:
    • At the Karman line, the atmosphere is extremely thin.
    • Traditional aircraft relying on wings for lift struggle to function effectively due to the thin atmosphere.
    • Spacecraft above the Karman line require their own propulsion systems to maintain trajectory and counteract the minimal atmospheric drag.

-Source: Indian Express


India has simplified the payment mechanism for traders importing pulses from Myanmar, requiring them to use the Rupee/Kyat direct payment system through the Special Rupee Vostro Account (SRVA) through the Punjab National Bank.


GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Settlement in Indian Rupees (SRVA)
  2. Eligibility Criteria for Banks

About Settlement in Indian Rupees (SRVA)


  • SRVA is an additional arrangement to the existing system of settlement using freely convertible currencies and operates as a complementary system.
    • Freely Convertible Currency: Currency that can be converted into major reserve currencies like the U.S. Dollar, Pound Sterling, in accordance with the country’s regulations.


  • Reduces dependence on hard (freely convertible) currency.

Regulatory Approval

  • SRVA requires prior approval from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) before opening, unlike the Rupee Vostro account.
Functioning of SRVA
  • Components
    • Invoicing: All exports and imports must be denominated and invoiced in Indian Rupees (INR).
    • Exchange Rate: The exchange rate between the trading partner countries’ currencies is market-determined.
    • Settlement: The final settlement occurs in INR.
  • Operational Process
    • Authorized domestic dealer banks (authorized to deal in foreign currencies) must open SRVA accounts for correspondent banks of the partner trading country.
    • Domestic importers make payments (in INR) into the SRVA account of the correspondent bank for invoices from overseas sellers/suppliers.
    • Domestic exporters receive export proceeds (in INR) from the balances in the designated account of the correspondent bank of the partner country.
    • For availing advances against exports, domestic banks must prioritize ensuring that available funds are used to meet existing payment obligations, i.e., from already executed export orders or pending export payments.
    • All cross-border transactions reporting must comply with the guidelines under the Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), 1999.

Eligibility Criteria for Banks

  • Banks from partner countries must approach an authorized domestic dealer bank to open the SRVA.
  • The domestic bank then seeks approval from the apex banking regulator, providing details of the arrangement.
  • Domestic banks must ensure the correspondent bank is not from a country listed in the updated Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Public Statement on High-Risk and Non-Co-operative jurisdictions.
  • Domestic banks must present financial parameters related to the corresponding bank for review.
  • Authorized banks can open multiple SRV accounts for different banks from the same country.
  • Balances in the account can be repatriated in freely convertible currency and/or the currency of the beneficiary partner country, depending on the underlying transaction for which the account was credited.

-Source: The Economic Times


Researchers have developed a groundbreaking blood test that measures the pace of ageing by studying DNA methylation. The test examines how an enzyme adds methyl groups to DNA in older adults, establishing a correlation between this biological process and ageing. This innovative approach offers a promising method to assess an individual’s biological age, providing valuable insights into the ageing process and potentially enabling personalized interventions to promote healthy ageing and prevent age-related diseases.


Facts for Prelims

Geroscience: An Overview


  • Geroscience is an interdisciplinary field dedicated to understanding the biological mechanisms of aging and age-related diseases.
Key Areas of Study
  • Biological Factors
    • DNA Methylation: A process where methyl groups (CH3) are added to the DNA molecule, crucial for regulating gene expression and maintaining genome stability.
    • Enzyme Activity: Including gerozyme, an aging-associated enzyme.
  • External Factors
    • Socio-economic influences.
    • Lifestyle interventions such as:
      • Nutrition
      • Exercise
      • Music therapy
  • To develop strategies, including drug interventions targeting specific aging-related processes, to promote healthy aging and combat age-related conditions like dementia.

-Source: The Hindu

May 2024