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Current Affairs 24 April 2024

  1. India’s General Elections 2024 Put Focus on Electoral Reforms
  2. India Loses 2.33 Million Hectares of Tree Cover Since 2000, Reveals GFW Data
  3. Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB PM-JAY)
  4. Sunita Kejriwal Appointed as AAP’s ‘Star Campaigner’ for Gujarat Elections
  5. Kashmir’s Magic Carpet
  6. BrahMos Supersonic cruise missile
  7. Biomarkers


Amid India’s General Elections 2024, there’s renewed attention on past electoral reforms, ranging from the establishment of the Election Commission to the introduction of Electronic Voting Machines and recent modifications in the appointment procedure for election commissioners. These reforms signify the ongoing evolution and strengthening of India’s electoral system, embodying the spirit of democratic advancement.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Key Electoral Reforms Enacted in India

Key Electoral Reforms Enacted in India

Establishment of Election Commission:
  • Founded on 25th January 1950 under Sukumar Sen’s leadership with only a Chief Election Commissioner.
  • The inaugural General Election took place from October 1951 to February 1952 with 17.5 crore voters participating.
  • Universal suffrage was adopted for citizens above 21 years, despite challenges like an illiterate electorate and refugee populations.
Reduction in Voting Age:
  • The 61st Constitutional Amendment Act of 1984 reduced the voting age from 21 years to 18 years for Lok Sabha and assembly elections to enable youth participation in the political process.
Role of Election Commission Personnel:
  • In 1985, provision made for personnel engaged in electoral roll preparation to be on deputation to the Election Commission.
Multi-Member Election Commission:
  • The Election Commission of India became a Multi-Member Commission in 1989 but reverted to a three-member body in 1993 (one Chief Election Commissioner and two election commissioners).
Introduction of Ballot Papers:
  • Initially, individual colored ballot boxes were used for each candidate.
  • The introduction of ballot papers streamlined the voting process, though challenges like potential errors and result delays persisted.
Adoption of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs):
  • In 1989, provisions were made for the use of EVMs in elections.
  • EVMs were first used experimentally in selected constituencies in 1998 and in the general elections for Goa’s Assembly in 1999.
  • EVMs are indigenously designed, developed, and manufactured by Bharat Electronic Ltd. and Electronics Corporation of India Ltd.
Provisions Against Booth Capturing:
  • In 1989, provisions were made to counter booth capturing, which includes seizing polling stations, threatening electors, and seizing places used for vote counting.
Model Code of Conduct (MCC):
  • Originated in Kerala in 1960, the MCC was expanded by the ECI in collaboration with political parties by 1979 to curb unfair advantages by the ruling party.
  • Electors’ photo identity cards (EPICs) were introduced in 1993 during T.N. Seshan’s tenure as CEC.
Equitable Media Time Allocation:
  • A 2003 provision mandates the Election Commission to allocate equitable time on cable television and electronic media during elections.
Ban on Exit Polls:
  • A 2009 provision prohibits conducting and publishing exit polls during elections to Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies.
Online Enrollment in Electoral Roll:
  • In 2013, provisions were made for online filing of applications for electoral roll enrollment through the Registration of the Electors (Amendment) Rules, 2013.
Introduction of NOTA:
  • The Supreme Court directed the inclusion of the None of the Above (NOTA) option in ballot papers and EVMs in 2013, allowing voters to abstain from voting while maintaining ballot secrecy.
Implementation of Voter-Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT):
  • In 2011, a prototype was developed and demonstrated before the ECI.
  • The Central government notified the amended Conduct of Elections Rules, 1961, enabling the use of VVPAT with EVMs in 2013.
Appointment Process for CEC and ECs:
  • Previously, the President appointed the CEC and ECs based on the central government’s recommendation.
  • In March 2023, the Supreme Court highlighted the recommendations from the Dinesh Goswami Committee on Electoral Reforms (1990) and the Law Commission’s 255th report on Electoral Reforms (2015).
  • The recent CEC and Other ECs (Appointment, Conditions of Service and Term of Office) 2023 supersedes the Election Commission Act, 1991, covering the appointment, salaries, and dismissal procedures for the CEC and ECs.
  • Under the new law, the President appoints them based on recommendations from a Selection Committee comprising the Prime Minister, a Union Cabinet Minister, and the Leader of the Opposition or the leader of the largest opposition party in the Lok Sabha.

-Source: The Hindu


Recent data from the Global Forest Watch (GFW) monitoring project shows that India has experienced a loss of 2.33 million hectares of tree cover since the year 2000. This decline represents a 6% reduction in tree cover over this period.


GS III: Environment and Ecology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Key Findings of Global Forest Watch (GFW)
  2. Status of Forest at the Global Level
  3. Status of Forests in India
  4. Major Forest Conservation Initiatives in India

Key Findings of Global Forest Watch (GFW)

Loss of Humid Primary Forest in India:

  • India lost approximately 4,14,000 hectares of humid primary forest (about 4.1% of the total tree cover) between 2002 and 2023.
  • A primary forest is a forest that hasn’t been damaged by human activity.

Carbon Emissions and Absorption:

  • From 2001 to 2022, Indian forests emitted 51 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent annually.
  • Indian forests removed 141 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent annually.
  • Net carbon balance represents a carbon sink of approximately 89.9 million tons annually.

Tree Cover Loss within Natural Forests:

  • 95% of the tree cover loss in India between 2013 and 2023 occurred within natural forests.
  • Maximum tree cover loss:
    • 189,000 hectares in 2017
    • 175,000 hectares in 2016
    • 144,000 hectares in 2023

States with Highest Tree Cover Loss:

  • Five states accounted for 60% of all tree cover loss between 2001 and 2023.
  • Assam experienced the highest tree cover loss at 324,000 hectares (compared to an average of 66,600 hectares).
  • Significant losses also observed in Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, and Manipur.

Impact of Forest Fires:

  • Fires caused 1.6% of tree cover loss in India between 2001 and 2022.
  • Maximum tree cover loss due to fires was recorded in 2008, amounting to 3,000 hectares.
  • Odisha had the highest rate of tree cover loss due to fires, averaging 238 hectares lost per year from 2001 to 2022.

Role of Forests in Climate Change:

  • Forests act as a carbon sink by absorbing carbon dioxide when standing or regrowing.
  • Forest loss accelerates climate change by releasing stored carbon into the atmosphere.

Status of Forest at the Global Level

Humid Primary Forest Loss:

  • From 2002 to 2023, a total of 76.3 Mha (million hectares) of humid primary forest was lost globally, accounting for 16% of the total tree cover loss in the same period.

Total Tree Cover Loss:

  • From 2001 to 2023, the global tree cover loss amounted to 488 Mha, equivalent to a 12% decrease since 2000.

Drivers of Tree Cover Loss:

  • Globally from 2001 to 2022, 23% of tree cover loss occurred due to deforestation.

Tree Cover Distribution:

  • As of 2010, the top 5 countries represented 55% of all tree cover.
  • Russia had the most tree cover at 755 Mha, followed by Brazil, Canada, the US, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Tree Cover Loss by Fires:

  • From 2001 to 2022, 126 Mha of tree cover was lost due to fires globally, and 333 Mha from other drivers of loss.

Initial Tree Cover:

  • In 2010, the world’s tree cover spanned approximately 3.92 billion hectares (Gha), roughly 30% of the Earth’s land area.

Tree Cover Loss:

  • Between 2010 and 2023, the global tree cover loss amounted to 28.3 Mha, due to factors like deforestation, land-use changes, and natural disturbances.

Status of Forests in India

Forest and Tree Cover:

  • According to the India State of Forest Report 2021, the total forest and tree cover in India is 24.62% of the country’s geographical area.
  • Total forest cover is 21.71% and the total tree cover is 2.91%.

State-wise Forest Cover:

  • Madhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover, followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Maharashtra.

Top States by Forest Cover (% of Geographical Area):

  • Mizoram (84.53%), Arunachal Pradesh (79.33%), Meghalaya (76.00%), Manipur (74.34%), and Nagaland (73.90%).

Employment in Forestry Sector:

  • According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 6.26M people were employed in India’s forestry sector in 2010.

Contribution to Economy:

  • According to the FAO, the forestry sector contributed a net -690 million USD to India’s economy in 2010, approximately -0.037% of India’s GDP.

Plantation Area:

  • In India, wood fibre or timber represents the largest plantation area by type, spanning 5.92 Mha and covering 1.9% of the land area.

Largest Relative Plantation Area:

  • Lakshadweep has the largest relative plantation area in India at 76%, primarily consisting of fruit plantations.

Major Forest Conservation Initiatives in India

Forest Cover Assessment:
  • The Forest Survey of India (FSI) conducts biennial assessments of forest cover, with findings published in the India State of Forest Report (ISFR).
  • ISFR 2021 reported India’s forest and tree cover at 8,09,537 sq km, accounting for 24.62% of the country’s geographical area.
  • This marks an increase of 2261 sq km compared to the ISFR 2019 assessment, indicating progress in forest conservation efforts.
Government Initiatives to Boost Forest Cover:
  • National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC):
    • Launched in 2008 to raise awareness about climate change and counter its effects.
  • National Mission for Green India:
    • One of the eight Missions under NAPCC.
    • Aims to protect, restore, and enhance India’s forest cover and respond to climate change through adaptation and mitigation measures.
  • Nagar Van Yojana (NVY):
    • Launched in 2020 with a goal to establish 600 Nagar Vans and 400 Nagar Vatika in urban and peri-urban areas by 2024-25.
    • Intends to increase green cover, preserve biodiversity, and improve urban dwellers’ quality of life.
  • Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAMPA):
    • Used by States/UTs for compensatory afforestation to counterbalance forest land diversion for developmental projects.
    • 90% of the CAF funds go to states, while 10% are retained by the Centre.
  • Multi-Departmental Efforts:
    • Afforestation activities are undertaken under various programs and schemes by line Ministries, State Governments/UT Administrations, NGOs, Civil Society, and Corporate bodies.
    • Notable efforts include participation in the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, National Bamboo Mission, and Sub-Mission on Agroforestry.
  • Draft National Forest Policy:
    • A draft was released in 2019 focusing on conservation, protection, and management of forests, and safeguarding the interests of tribals and forest-dependent people.

-Source: Indian Express


While releasing its election manifesto for the 2024 Lok Sabha elections, a prominent political party promised to expand its Ayushman Bharat Health Insurance scheme to cover senior citizens.


GS II: Government policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY)
  2. Need for Ayushman Bharat for Senior Citizens

Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY)

  • Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB PM-JAY) is the flagship scheme of the Union government as a part of the Indian government’s National Health Policy.
  • AB-PMJAY provides a health cover of up to Rs. 5 lakh a family a year, for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization, to India’s bottom 40% poor and vulnerable population.
  • The programme was launched in September, 2018.
  • AB-PMJAY is under the aegis of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • The PM Jan Arogya Yojana beneficiaries get an e-card that can be used to avail services at an empanelled hospital, public or private, anywhere in the country, with which they can walk into a hospital and obtain cashless treatment.
  • The scheme has certain pre-conditions by which it picks who can avail of the health cover benefit. While in the rural areas the list is mostly categorized on lack of housing, meagre income and other deprivations, the urban list of PMJAY beneficiaries is drawn up on the basis of occupation.
Key Features of AB-PMJAY
  • PM-JAY is a health assurance scheme that covers 10.74 crores households across India or approximately 50 crore Indians.
  • It provides a cover of 5 lakh per family per year for medical treatment in empanelled hospitals, both public and private.
  • It provides cashless and paperless service to its beneficiaries at the point of service, i.e., the hospital.
  • E-cards are provided to the eligible beneficiaries based on the deprivation and occupational criteria of Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011 (SECC 2011).
  • There is no restriction on family size, age or gender.
  • All previous medical conditions are covered under the scheme.
  • It covers 3 days of hospitalisation and 15 days of post hospitalisation, including diagnostic care and expenses on medicines.
  • The scheme is portable and a beneficiary can avail medical treatment at any PM-JAY empanelled hospital outside their state and anywhere in the country.
  • The Central government has decided to provide free testing and treatment of Coronavirus under the Ayushman Bharat Yojana.

Need for Ayushman Bharat for Senior Citizens

Ageing Population
  • Demographic Shift:
    • India is currently benefiting from a demographic dividend. However, with a declining fertility rate and increasing life expectancy, India’s population is ageing.
    • In 2011, only 8.6% of the population was over 60 years old. This is projected to rise to 19.5% by 2050.
    • The absolute number of people over 60 is expected to almost triple from 103 million in 2011 to 319 million in 2050.
  • Healthcare Expenditure:
    • An ageing population will lead to increased health and long-term care costs, labour shortages, public dissavings, and income insecurity in old age.
    • Senior citizens often bear the highest burden of chronic health conditions, leading to higher healthcare costs.
Low Insurance Coverage
  • Coverage Statistics:
    • The India Ageing Report 2023 indicates that just over 20% of people over 60 are covered under health schemes like the Central Government Health Scheme and Employees State Insurance Scheme.
    • Coverage is slightly higher for elderly men (19.7%) compared to elderly women (16.9%), with no significant rural-urban divide.
  • Reasons for Low Coverage:
    • Main reasons include low awareness (52.9%) and non-affordability (21.6%).
Diseases of the Elderly
  • Health Challenges:
    • Elderly individuals are susceptible to chronic, non-communicable diseases and their complications.
    • They are also more vulnerable to infectious diseases due to a weakened immune system.
Analysis of Ayushman Bharat Expenditure
  • Specialty Expenditure:
    • Government data indicates that the majority of funds under the scheme are spent on five key specialties: cardiology, general medicine, general surgery, orthopaedics, and medical and radiation oncology.
  • Relevance to Elderly Population:
    • This expenditure pattern highlights that the government is already spending most of its healthcare budget on treatments predominantly required for the elderly population.

-Source: The Hindu


Sunita Kejriwal, the wife of Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal, has been appointed as a ‘star campaigner’ by the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) for its campaign in Gujarat.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Legal Provisions for Star Campaigners
  2. Benefits for Star Campaigners
  3. Concerns Regarding Campaigning by Star Campaigners
  4. Measures to Maintain Decorum and Restraint in Campaigning

Legal Provisions for Star Campaigners

Section 77 of the Representation of the People Act 1951 (RP Act)
  • Governs the expenditure incurred by ‘leaders of a political party’.
  • These leaders are commonly referred to as ‘star campaigners’.
Definition and Eligibility
  • Star campaigners are typically the top leaders of a political party.
  • Can also include other celebrities.
  • Requirement: They must be members of the appointing political party.
Appointment Limit
  • Recognised political party (national or State): Up to 40 star campaigners.
  • Registered unrecognised political party: Up to 20 star campaigners.
Notification Process
  • Names to be sent to the Election Commission (EC) and Chief Electoral Officer (CEO) within seven days from the election notification date.
Multi-phase Election Provision
  • Parties can submit separate lists of star campaigners for different election phases.

Benefits for Star Campaigners

Expenditure Exclusion
  • Expenditure by star campaigners on travel for party campaigning is not counted as part of a candidate’s election expenditure.
Election expenditure limit:
  • ₹95 lakh per Lok Sabha constituency in larger States.
  • ₹75 lakh in smaller States.
  • Star campaigners act as vote-fetchers without affecting candidate’s expenditure limit.
General Campaigning Clause
  • Applies when star campaigners limit their role to general party campaigning.
  • If they seek votes for specific candidates or share the stage with them:
    • Rally/meeting expenses are included in the candidate’s election expenditure.
Boarding and Lodging Expenses
  • Incurred by star campaigners for any candidate are part of the candidate’s expenditure account, regardless of who pays.
Travel Expenditure
  • If candidates travel with the star campaigner:
  • 50% of the star campaigner’s travel expenses are allocated to the candidate(s).

Concerns Regarding Campaigning by Star Campaigners

Inappropriate and Abusive Language
  • Star campaigners from various parties have used inappropriate and abusive language against leaders of opposing parties.
  • They have appealed to caste/communal feelings and made unsubstantiated allegations.
Understated Expenditure
  • Actual expenditure for rallies/meetings of star campaigners is often reported significantly lower than the real costs.
  • Possible reasons:
    • EC’s rate card doesn’t reflect current market rates.
    • Results in lower allocation of expenses to contesting candidates.

Measures to Maintain Decorum and Restraint in Campaigning

Empowerment of the Election Commission (EC)
  • Current Provision
    • RP Act allows political parties to appoint or revoke the appointment of star campaigners.
Proposed Change
  • Amend the law to allow the EC to revoke the ‘star campaigner’ status of a leader for serious violations of the Model Code of Conduct.
  • Article 324 of the Constitution designates the EC as the supreme authority for the superintendence and control of elections.
  • Aim: Instill a sense of responsibility among star campaigners and ensure campaigns adhere to necessary decorum and restraint.
Robust Assessment of Expenditure
  • Strengthen the assessment and allocation of rally/meeting expenses for campaigns involving star campaigners.
  • Ensure accurate reflection of the actual costs incurred.

-Source: The Hindu


Recently, the famous Hazratbal Dargah in Srinagar is attracting locals for a rare spectacle of the washing and clipping of the largest carpet woven in Kashmir so far.


GS I: Culture

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is Kashmir’s Magic Carpet?
  2. Kashan Style: Features and Origin
  3. Historical Background of Kashmiri Carpet Craft

What is Kashmir’s Magic Carpet?

  • The magic carpet from Kashmir, crafted in the Kashan Style, is an elaborate masterpiece.
  • It measures 72 feet in length and 40 feet in width, weighs 1,685 kg, and boasts over three crore knots.

Creation and Challenges

  • Artisans dedicated eight years to its weaving.
  • They revived the traditional craft, overcoming obstacles like the 2014 floods, the 2019 abrogation of Article 370 in Jammu and Kashmir, and the challenges posed by the Covid-19 pandemic.

Handling and Maintenance

  • Unrolling the carpet requires a team of at least 30 people.
  • A specialized team of 30-35 professional washers cares for it daily.

Destination and Competition

  • The carpet is expected to adorn a palace in the Middle East.
  • Kashmiri artisans are vying against their Iranian counterparts for the first time. The Iranians have crafted a massive carpet spanning 60,468 square feet, equivalent to a soccer field.

Kashan Style: Features and Origin

Origin and Appeal

  • The carpet is designed in the Kashan style, a historic pattern borrowed from the Iranian city of Kashan.
  • Kashan ceramic art, rooted in the historic city of Kashan in modern-day Iran, has fascinated art enthusiasts for generations.


  • The Kashan style is renowned for its exquisite craftsmanship, intricate designs, and a harmonious mix of tradition, innovation, and artistic flair.

Historical Background of Kashmiri Carpet Craft


  • The tradition of carpet weaving in Kashmir dates back to the 15th century when Badshah Zain-ul-Abidin invited artisans from Persia and Central Asia to settle in the region.


  • Initially, artisans focused on crafting fine pashmina shawls. However, with the decreasing demand due to the introduction of jacquard looms in Europe, they transitioned to carpet weaving.

Global Recognition

  • Kashmiri carpets earned international acclaim after being showcased at the Great London Exhibition of 1851.
  • They continued to dazzle audiences at exhibitions in Chicago, Paris, and London in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Preservation of Techniques

  • The ancient craft is guided by secret blueprints called talim, which are passed down through generations to preserve traditional techniques.

-Source: The Hindu


Recently, India delivered BrahMos supersonic cruise missiles to the Philippines. India is looking at further expanding defense ties with the Philippines against the backdrop of growing global concerns over China’s increasing military assertiveness in the South China Sea.


 GS-III Internal Security Challenges, Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About BrahMos supersonic cruise missile
  2. About Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)

About BrahMos supersonic cruise missile

  • The BrahMos is a medium-range ramjet supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarine, ships, aircraft, or land.
  • It is the fastest supersonic cruise missile in the world.
  • BRAHMOS is a joint venture between the Defence Research and Development Organisation of India (DRDO) and the NPOM of Russia.
  • Brahmos is named on the rivers Brahmaputra and Moskva.
  • It is a two-stage (solid propellant engine in the first stage and liquid ramjet in second) air to surface missile with a flight range of around 300 km.
  • However, India’s entry into the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) has extended the range of the BRAHMOS missile to reach 450 km-600km, a shade above its current MTCR capped range of 300 km.
  • Brahmos is a multiplatform i.e., it can be launched from land, air, and sea and multi capability missile with pinpoint accuracy that works in both day and night irrespective of the weather conditions.
  • It operates on the “Fire and Forgets” principle i.e., it does not require further guidance after launch.
  • Brahmos is one of the fastest cruise missiles currently operationally deployed with speed of Mach 2.8, which is 3 times more than the speed of sound.

About Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)

  • The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is an agency of the Government of India, charged with the military’s research and development.
  • It is headquartered in Delhi, India and has its 50+ labs all across the country.
  • It was formed in 1958.
  • It is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Defence, Government of India.
  • With a network of 52 laboratories, which are engaged in developing defence technologies covering various fields, like aeronautics, armaments, electronics, land combat engineering, life sciences, materials, missiles, and naval systems, DRDO is India’s largest and most diverse research organisation.
Objectives of DRDO
  • Design, develop and lead to production state-of-the-art sensors, weapon systems, platforms and allied equipment for our Defence Services.
  • Provide technological solutions to the Services to optimise combat effectiveness and to promote well-being of the troops.
  • Develop infrastructure and committed quality manpower and build strong indigenous technology base.
Issues with DRDO:
  • Inadequate Budgetary Support
  • It also suffers from inadequate manpower in critical areas to the lack of proper synergy with the armed forces.
  • Cost escalation and long delays have damaged the reputation of DRDO.
  • DRDO is big on promise and small on delivery. There is no accountability. Nobody is taken to task for time and cost overruns.
  • Equipments are obsolete and is just tinkering with World War II equipment instead of working on cutting-edge technology.

-Source: The Hindu


Screening for blood biomarkers has been proposed as a potential way to diagnose cancer at earlier stages of the disease.


GS III: Science and Technology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Biomarkers
  2. Classification of Biomarkers

About Biomarkers

Definition and Nature

  • Biomarkers, or ‘Biological Markers,’ are physical, chemical, or biological features present in the human body that are measurable.
  • According to the WHO, a biomarker is “any measurement reflecting an interaction between a biological system and a potential hazard, which may be chemical, physical, or biological. The measured response may be functional and physiological, biochemical at the cellular level, or a molecular interaction.”
  • Also referred to as molecular markers and signature molecules.

Importance and Applications

  • Essential for disease diagnosis, prescribing accurate medication and dosage, and designing new drugs.
  • Biomolecules encompass carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, genes, DNA, RNA, platelets, enzymes, and hormones.

Classification of Biomarkers

Based on Source or Location:

Molecular Biomarkers

  • Possess biophysical properties, allowing their measurement in biological samples like blood plasma, serum, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage, biopsy, urinalysis, and fecal analysis.

Radiographic Biomarkers

  • Derived from imaging studies, such as bone mineral density.

Histologic Biomarkers

  • Reflect biochemical or molecular alterations in cells, tissues, or fluids, for instance, staging and grading of cancers.

Physiologic Biomarkers

  • Measures of body processes like blood pressure, pulse rate, and heart rate.
Based on Roles/Functions:

Susceptibility/Risk Biomarkers

  • Indicate the likelihood of developing a specific disease or condition in the near or distant future.

Diagnostic Biomarkers

  • Used to detect or confirm a particular disease or condition.

Prognostic Biomarkers

  • Predict the likelihood of disease progression or relapse in individuals already diagnosed with a disease.

Monitoring Biomarkers

  • Used to:
    • Assess the stage or condition of the disease.
    • Measure exposure to a specific drug.
    • Measure exposure to an environmental agent.

Predictive Biomarkers

  • Identify individuals with a higher likelihood of experiencing a significant outcome when exposed to a particular drug, aiding in treatment decisions.

Pharmacodynamic/Response Biomarkers

  • Indicate that a biological response has occurred in patients exposed to a specific drug or environmental agent.

-Source: The Hindu

May 2024