Call Us Now

+91 9606900005 / 04

For Enquiry

Current Affairs 25 April 2024

  1. Young Voters Show Reluctance in Participation Ahead of 18th Lok Sabha Elections
  2. Bhutan Hosts Conference to Mobilise Funds for Tiger Conservation on Earth Day 2024
  3. State of the Climate in Asia 2023
  4. Israel Uses GPS Spoofing to Counter Iranian Missile Threats
  5. Pink Hydrogen
  6. Golden Trevally Fish


As India prepares for the 18th Lok Sabha elections, a worrisome trend has emerged: the reluctance of the country’s youngest eligible voters to participate.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What Causes the Reluctance of India’s Youngest Voters to Engage?
  2. The Implications of Voter Apathy for Democracy
  3. Voter Rights and Responsibilities in Elections

What Causes the Reluctance of India’s Youngest Voters to Engage?

Low Registration Rates

  • Less than 40% of voters aged 18 to 19 have registered for the 2024 elections, raising concerns about youth engagement.
  • Lowest enrollment rates observed in Delhi, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Bihar has only 9.3 lakh registered out of a potential 54 lakh (17%), despite its youthful population.
  • Similar low enrollment trends in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra.

Social Media Exposure but Political Hesitancy

  • Despite exposure to political voices on social media, many young people are hesitant to actively participate in voting, even though they are passionate about social action and protests.

Educational System Gaps

  • The education system is perceived as inadequate in preparing young people to understand the political process and its significance.
  • Insufficient education on civic engagement and voting.
  • Lack of critical thinking skills and political awareness in the school curriculum.

Political Disconnect and Lack of Representation

  • Political parties often fail to advocate agendas that resonate with the younger demographic.
  • Youth are often underrepresented in political decision-making bodies.
  • This lack of representation can lead to policies that don’t address the needs and concerns of young people.

Limited Opportunities and Disillusionment

  • Limited opportunities for meaningful participation in the political process.
  • Disillusionment with top-down decision-making and governance structures.
  • Social pressures, stereotypes, and negative perceptions discourage youth from engaging in politics.
  • Political focus often shifts from meaningful agendas to money and muscle power, hindering youth participation.

Perceived Irrelevance and Over-reliance on Social Media

  • Young people feel disconnected from political issues that directly affect them.
  • Over-reliance on social media for information leads to misinformation and superficial engagement with political issues.

The Implications of Voter Apathy for Democracy

Disenfranchisement Issues

  • Disenfranchisement refers to the deprivation of voting rights due to legal barriers, impeding citizens’ ability to participate in democracy.
  • Many migrants face disenfranchisement as they can’t travel to polling stations where they are registered, requiring proof of a fixed address, which many lack.
  • Social disenfranchisement during elections persists despite constitutional guarantees (article 326) that should ensure equitable participation.

Threat to Democratic Principles

  • Voter disinterest challenges the core principle of democracy, which relies on active citizen participation.
  • Disengaged voters allow a minority to dictate governance, leading to exclusion for marginalized communities.
  • Low voter turnout perpetuates inequality and injustice, as the voices of underrepresented groups are unheard.

Legitimacy and Trust Concerns

  • Low voter turnout raises questions about the legitimacy of electoral outcomes, undermining public trust in the democratic process.
  • When a significant portion of the population abstains from voting, the mandate of elected representatives may be questioned, casting doubt on the credibility of democratic institutions.

Voter Rights and Responsibilities in Elections

Electoral Roll and Registration

  • The Electoral Roll updates quarterly, allowing registration for those turning 18 in the respective quarters.
  • Eligible youth receive an Electors Photo Identity Card (EPIC) upon registration.
  • This applies to those turning 18 by 1st January, 1st April, 1st July, or 1st October.
  • Voters can only be enrolled at one place; multiple registrations are an offence.

Voting Eligibility and Identification

  • Having a voter ID or Election Commission of India prescribed document doesn’t guarantee voting.
  • The name must be on the electoral rolls, and a valid ID is required to cast a vote.

Valid identification includes:

  • Electors Photo Identity Card (EPIC)
  • Aadhaar card
  • MNREGA job card
  • Driving licence
  • PAN card
  • Smart card from Registrar General and Census Commissioner
  • Passport
  • Pension document with photo
  • Identity card from a government agency
  • MLA/MP identity card
  • A ration card is not a valid identification for voting.

Disqualification Criteria

  • Individuals convicted of offences under:
  • Section 171E (bribery)
  • Section 171F (personation or undue influence at an election) of the Indian Penal Code are disqualified.
  • Section 125, Section 135, and Section 136 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 lead to disqualification.
  • Voting in more than one constituency disqualifies the vote.
Voting Process Guidelines

Wrong Button

  • If a wrong button is pressed on an Electronic Voting Machine (EVM), approach the polling officer for a reset to vote again.

Refusal to Vote

  • Electors can refuse to vote after registering their identities and reaching the polling booth.
  • The NOTA (None Of The Above) option allows voters to express a lack of confidence in any candidate.
  • The ‘refusal to vote’ option lets an elector shun the entire poll process.

Unauthorised Voting

  • Voters can still vote if someone else has already voted in their name by using a “Tendered Ballot Paper” according to Rule 49P of the Conduct of Elections Rules.
  • The Presiding Officer will collect and keep the tendered ballot paper separate.

Proxy Voting

  • Service voters, such as members of the armed forces, Government employees posted outside the country, and members of the armed police force of a State, can use the proxy voting facility.
  • They can appoint a proxy, who must be a resident of the same constituency, to vote on their behalf.

Vote from Home

  • The ECI introduced home voting for the elderly and Persons with Disabilities (PwDs) in the 2024 Lok Sabha elections.
  • Those above 85 years of age and PwDs with 40% benchmark disability can avail of this facility.

Reporting Malpractices

  • Report violations anonymously using the cVIGIL citizen mobile app to capture images or videos of malpractices.
  • The ECI guarantees a response within 100 minutes, specifying the action taken.
  • The app allows users to report violations, track location via GPS, capture live incidents, monitor complaint status, and report violations anonymously.

-Source: Indian Express


The Bhutanese government marked Earth Day 2024 by hosting the Sustainable Finance for Tiger Landscapes Conference, aiming to mobilise USD 1 billion over the next decade for conserving tigers and their habitats across Asia.


GS III: Environment and Ecology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Sustainable Finance for Tiger Landscapes Conference
  2. About International Big Cat Alliance

Sustainable Finance for Tiger Landscapes Conference

Host and Duration

  • The two-day conference is hosted by Bhutan under the patronage of the country’s queen, Jetsun Pema Wangchuck.

Objective and Funding Target

  • The conference aims to mobilize USD 1 billion over 10 years for the preservation of tiger landscapes.
  • Conservation of tiger landscapes is crucial for:
  • Maintaining biodiversity
  • Sequestering carbon
  • Supplying resources to over 100 million people
  • Ensuring the overall health of the planet


  • The conference convened:
  • Tiger range countries
  • Visionary private and public sector donors
  • International development agencies
  • Tiger Conservation Coalition
  • Other conservation organizations
Key Highlights

Country Representatives

  • High-level representatives from ten tiger range countries delivered statements on the progress and ambitions for conserving their tiger landscapes.

Paro Statement

  • The conference concluded with the Paro Statement by the Royal Government of Bhutan, reaffirming its objective to conserve tiger landscapes.

Other Sources of Funding

  • Global Environment Facility (GEF)
  • Since 2010, GEF has provided more than USD 197 million in financing and mobilized an additional USD 880 million in co-finance for tiger conservation.

About International Big Cat Alliance:


  • It aims to strengthen global cooperation and efforts for conservation of seven big cat species and their habitats.


  • IBCA aims for mutual cooperation among countries for mutual benefit in furthering the conservation agenda.
  • IBCA would have a multipronged approach in broad basing and establishing linkages manifold in several areas and help in knowledge sharing, capacity building, networking, advocacy, finance and resources support, research and technical support, education and awareness.


  • The International Big Cat Alliance has been conceived as a multi-country, multi-agency coalition of 96 big cat range countries,
  • Non-range countries interested in big cat conservation
  • Conservation partners and scientific organizations working in the field of big cat conservation
  • Business groups and corporates willing to contribute to the cause of big cats
  • Seven big cats include Tiger, Lion, Leopard, Snow Leopard, Puma, Jaguar and the Cheetah out of these five big cats viz. Tiger, Lion, Leopard, Snow Leopard and Cheetah are found in India.

-Source: The Hindu


According to the World Meteorological Organisation’s (WMO) report, ‘State of the Climate in Asia 2023’, Asia experienced the highest number of disasters in the world in 2023.


GS III: Environment and Ecology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Key Highlights of the ‘State of the Climate in Asia 2023’ Report
  2. Highlights About India
  3. What Needs to be Done?

Key Highlights of the ‘State of the Climate in Asia 2023’ Report

Extreme Weather Events

  • 79 events associated with extreme weather, climate, and water-related hazards in 2023 affected over 9 million people, directly killing over 2,000.
  • Compared to 2022, the reported disaster events were only two events fewer in 2023.
  • The number of people impacted was lower due to the 2022 Pakistan floods, which alone affected over 30 million people.

Temperature Trends

  • The mean temperature over Asia in 2023 was 0.91°C above the 1991–2020 reference period, the second highest on record.
  • Many parts of the region experienced extreme heat events, with Japan recording its hottest summer on record.

Glacier Mass Loss

  • Glaciers in High-Mountain Asia have lost significant mass over the past 40 years at an accelerating rate.
  • Record-breaking high temperatures and drier conditions in the Eastern Himalayas and the Tien Shan exacerbated mass loss in 2023.

Ocean Warming

  • The ocean around Asia has shown an overall warming trend since 1982.
  • Sea-surface temperature anomalies in the north-west Pacific Ocean were the highest on record in 2023.

Drought in South-west China

  • Below-normal precipitation levels nearly every month of 2023 led to a drought in south-west China.
  • Hydrometeorological Hazards
  • Floods and storms accounted for 80% of the hydrometeorological hazards, with Yemen suffering heavy rainfall resulting in widespread floods.

Highlights About India

Impact of Extreme Weather Events

  • India experienced severe heatwaves, rainfall-induced floods, glacial lake outbursts, and tropical cyclones.

Severe Heat Waves

  • In April and June 2023, severe heatwaves resulted in about 110 deaths due to heatstroke.
  • Ballia and Deoria districts in Uttar Pradesh saw the deaths of over 100 people, many of them senior citizens with co-morbidities.
  • Temperatures ranged from 42-43 degrees Celsius during these heat-related deaths.

Flood Events

  • Floods occurred in August 2023, with Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand recording 25 deaths and extensive damage to infrastructure and agriculture.
  • The Indian government declared a state of emergency in the worst-affected areas, initiating rescue and relief operations.

Tropical Cyclones

  • The Indian sub-continent experienced six tropical cyclones in 2023, slightly above the average of 5.4 cyclones.
  • Four cyclones – Mocha, Hamoon, Midhili, and Michaung – formed over the Bay of Bengal, and two – Biparjoy and Tej – formed over the Arabian Sea.

Glacial Lake Outburst Flood

  • A significant glacial lake outburst flood in South Lhonak Lake in Sikkim on October 4 led to the breaching of the Chungthang dam downstream on the Teesta River, killing over 40 people.

What Needs to be Done?

Addressing the Gap in Climate Projections

  • Disaster risk reduction in the Asia region is facing an alarming gap in climate projections and tailored products needed to inform long-term interventions for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change and its impacts.

Inadequate Tailored Products

  • Currently, less than 50% of WMO Members provide tailored products, indicating a significant inadequacy given the region’s high vulnerability to climate-related disasters.

Projected Annual Losses

  • By 2030, annual losses in Asia due to extreme weather events are expected to exceed USD 160 billion, close to 0.6% of the region’s GDP, up from 0.1% in the 1970s.

Urgent Actions Needed

  • There is an urgent need to advance efforts and provide more tailored support products to address long-term strategies as well as medium and short-term activities and interventions to effectively mitigate disaster risks.

-Source: The Hindu


Recent reports indicate that Israel has employed Global Positioning System (GPS) spoofing techniques to defend against Iranian missile attacks, a strategy reminiscent of past instances such as the United States’ actions during the Kargil war in India.


GS II: International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is GPS Spoofing?
  2. Was GPS Spoofing by the US a Factor During the Kargil War?

What is GPS Spoofing?

  • GPS spoofing is a method used to alter GPS signals to mislead receivers, causing them to believe they are in a different location than they actually are.
  • This technique can broadcast false GPS signals or modify authentic ones, leading to inaccurate information about positioning.
  • Spoofing can serve various objectives, such as:
    • Tricking enemy navigation systems
    • Guarding against unauthorized tracking
    • Generating false location data for malicious purposes
Consequences of GPS Spoofing
  • Military Interference: Misguiding enemy navigation systems, resulting in inaccurate targeting.
  • Safety Risks in Navigation: Possible accidents or collisions in maritime and aviation sectors.
  • Disruption of Critical Infrastructure: Interruption of vital services like power grids or transportation systems.
  • Financial Deception: Alteration of location-based services for fraudulent activities.
  • Threats to National Security: Misleading military or government agencies, risks of espionage, and infiltration.

Was GPS Spoofing by the US a Factor During the Kargil War?

Historical Background

  • Around 25 years ago, Pakistani soldiers infiltrated India and occupied positions in Kargil in 1999. Despite the Indian military’s request for GPS data for the area, the US declined to provide it.

Use of Selective Availability

  • The US initially used a technology known as “selective availability” to deliberately introduce inaccuracies into civilian GPS receivers, preserving the highest accuracy for military purposes.
  • This method was employed to “degrade” GPS accuracy for the Indian military during the Kargil conflict, impeding their operations.
India’s Countermeasure to GPS Spoofing

Introduction of NavIC

  • India launched NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation), formerly named the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
  • NavIC offers precise and secure positioning, navigation, and timing services within India and up to 1500 kilometers beyond its territorial boundary.

NavIC provides two services:

  • Standard Position Service (SPS) for civilian users
  • Restricted Service (RS) for strategic users.
  • NavIC SPS signals are compatible with signals from other global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) like GPS, Glonass (Russia), Galileo (European Union), and BeiDou (China).

-Source: Indian Express


Nuclear energy can be used to spur ‘pink’ hydrogen generation in India by amending the respected law.


Facts for Prelims

About Pink Hydrogen

Definition and Generation

  • Pink hydrogen is produced through electrolysis powered by nuclear energy.
  • It can also be referred to as purple hydrogen or red hydrogen.

Advantages of Nuclear Power

  • The high temperatures from nuclear reactors can be utilized in other hydrogen production methods by generating steam for more efficient electrolysis or fossil gas-based steam methane reforming.
  • Nuclear power provides significant benefits for pink hydrogen production, including reduced production costs and emissions, making it a sustainable and more cost-effective alternative to conventional methods.

Applications of Pink Hydrogen

  • Pink hydrogen is a promising substitute for fossil fuels in various industries such as the cement industry, steel industry, aviation, and heavy transportation.
  • It can be used as a feedstock and energy source without emitting greenhouse gases.
What is Electrolysis?
  • Definition and Process
  • Electrolysis is a promising method for carbon-free hydrogen production from renewable and nuclear resources.
  • It is the process of using electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen, which occurs in a unit called an electrolyzer.

-Source: Business Standards


Researchers of the ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) have succeeded in captive breeding of golden trevally (Gnathanodon speciosus).


GS III: Species in News

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Golden Trevally Fish
  2. Key Facts about Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI)

About Golden Trevally Fish

Definition and Characteristics

  • The Golden Trevally is a high-value marine fish, also known as the golden kingfish.
  • It is an ideal species for mariculture due to its rapid growth rates, high-quality meat, and significant market demand for consumption and ornamental purposes.
  • This reef-associated fish lives in the company of larger fishes such as skates, sharks, and groupers.
  • In India, fish landing observations indicate that golden trevally are predominantly landed at reef area fishing grounds in Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Kerala, Karnataka, and Gujarat.

Key Facts about Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI)

Establishment and Affiliation

  • Established by the Government of India in 1947 under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.
  • Joined the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) in 1967.

Mandate of CMFRI

  • To monitor the exploited and assess the under-exploited marine fisheries resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone.
  • To understand the fluctuations in the abundance of marine fisheries resources in relation to environmental changes.
  • To develop suitable mariculture technologies for finfish, shellfish, and other culturable organisms in open seas to supplement capture fishery production.


  • One of the major achievements of CMFRI is the development and refinement of a unique method for estimating fishery catch and effort from the over 8000 km coastline, known as the “Stratified Multistage Random Sampling Method.”


  • Located in Kochi, Kerala.

-Source: The Hindu

May 2024