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Current Affairs 27 June 2024

  1. Tragic Incident in Tamil Nadu
  2. Study on Representation and Forest Conservation in Scheduled Areas
  3. New Leave Policy for Government Employees Opting for Surrogacy
  4. Public Examinations (Prevention Of Unfair Means) Act 2024
  5. African swine fever
  6. Indian Painted Frog
  7. Indian Army’s Skin Bank


Recently, approximately 34 people lost their lives, and around 100 others were hospitalized after consuming illicit or spurious liquor in the Kallakurichi district of Tamil Nadu.


GS II: Health

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Understanding Hooch
  2. Key Facts About Methanol and its Consumption

Understanding Hooch

  • Definition: Hooch refers to low-quality alcohol, originally named after the Hoochinoo, an indigenous Alaskan tribe known for making potent liquor.
  • Production Conditions: It is typically made in unregulated and unhygienic environments, posing significant health risks.
  • Quality Control: Due to the lack of quality control, consumers cannot accurately determine the alcohol content or detect potential contaminants.
Production Process of Hooch
  • Starting Ingredients: The production begins with a sugary substance such as fruits, grains, or sugarcane.
  • Fermentation: Yeast is added to ferment the sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
  • Potency: Unlike beer or wine, hooch often has a higher alcohol content. Distillation is used to increase this by heating the fermented mixture.
  • Evaporation and Condensation: Alcohol evaporates at a lower boiling point; the vapor is then condensed back into liquid, resulting in higher alcohol concentration.
Alcohol Content in Liquor
  • Ethanol: The primary alcohol in beverages, responsible for intoxication.
  • Chemical Composition: Ethanol (C2H5OH) consists of two carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one hydroxyl group (OH-).
  • Alcohol Content: The alcohol content in beverages varies, with beer containing about 5% and distilled spirits like vodka and whiskey containing up to 40%.
  • Metabolism: In the body, ethanol is processed by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes into acetaldehyde, which is then converted to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes.
Spurious Liquor
  • Definition: Fake or counterfeit alcohol, often produced domestically.
  • Addition of Methanol: Methanol may be added to increase the alcohol’s potency or volume, which is dangerous if consumed in large quantities.
  • Risks: The production of hooch poses risks due to the presence of toxic methanol alongside consumable ethanol.
  • Standards: The Food Safety and Standards (Alcoholic Beverages) Regulations 2018 outline the permissible limits of methanol in various liquors.
  • Permissible Limits: These limits vary, with some products like coconut fenny having no permissible methanol, while country liquor can contain up to 50 grams per 100 liters, and pot-distilled spirits can have up to 300 grams per 100 liters.

Key Facts About Methanol and its Consumption

  • Chemical Nature: Methanol, denoted as CH3OH, is a simple alcohol composed of one carbon atom, three hydrogen atoms, and one hydroxyl group (OH).
  • Regulation: In India, methanol is classified under Schedule I of the Manufacture, Storage, and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules 1989.
  • Quality Standards: Indian Standard IS 517 outlines the quality standards for methanol.
Industrial Production
  • Process: Methanol is mainly produced by combining carbon monoxide and hydrogen with copper and zinc oxide catalysts at pressures between 50-100 atm and temperatures around 250°C.
  • Historical Production: Historically, methanol was obtained through the destructive distillation of wood, a method known since ancient times, including ancient Egypt.
  • Applications: Methanol is a crucial precursor in producing acetic acid, formaldehyde, and various aromatic hydrocarbons. It is widely used as a solvent, antifreeze, and in various industrial processes.
Effects on the Human Body
  • Metabolism: When ingested, methanol is broken down into toxic byproducts, mainly formic acid. This disrupts the body’s pH balance, leading to metabolic acidosis, a condition where excess acid cannot be eliminated by the kidneys.
  • Blood Acidity: The presence of formic acid makes the blood more acidic, impairing its function.
  • Enzyme Interference: Formic acid interferes with the enzyme cytochrome oxidase, essential for cellular respiration. This disrupts oxygen utilization by cells, leading to lactic acid buildup and further acidosis.
  • Optic Nerve Damage: Methanol can damage the optic nerve and retina, causing methanol-induced optic neuropathy, which can result in permanent vision loss or blindness.
  • Severe Health Risks: It can cause cerebral edema (fluid accumulation in the brain) and hemorrhage (bleeding), potentially leading to coma and death.

-Source: The Hindu


A recent study has explored the relationship between representation and forest conservation in India’s Scheduled Areas.

  • Findings indicate that empowering tribal populations with political representation and decision-making authority, as facilitated by acts like PESA, has significantly contributed to forest conservation efforts.\


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Key Findings of the Study
  2. About PESA Act

Key Findings of the Study

  • Study Context:
    • The authors conducted a comprehensive data-driven study focusing on the Panchayat (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act (PESA), which ensures political representation for Scheduled Tribes (STs).
  • Methodology:
    • The research compared villages with mandatory ST representation in local governance to those without it. Additionally, it compared villages that adopted PESA early to those that did later, assessing deforestation and afforestation rates.
    • The study employed a “difference-in-differences” framework to isolate the impact of PESA on forest cover.
    • Satellite data was utilized to analyze forestation changes globally from 2001 to 2017, differing from traditional small-scale community fieldwork.
Key Findings
  • Political Representation:
    • PESA has provided STs with greater political representation, giving them a significant role in forest management decisions.
  • Resistance to Commercial Activities:
    • PESA has bolstered STs’ capacity to resist large-scale commercial activities like mining, resulting in a more substantial reduction in deforestation in PESA villages near mines.
  • Conflict Incidence:
    • The implementation of PESA has also led to an increase in conflicts surrounding mining activities.
  • Forest Cover:
    • The PESA Act contributed to an average annual increase in tree canopy by 3% and a decrease in deforestation rates.
  • Economic Incentives:
    • PESA has enhanced economic incentives for ST communities to protect forests, especially for non-timber forest products like medicinal plants and fruits, thereby improving food security.
  • Comparison with Forest Rights Act, 2006:
    • The study found that the Forest Rights Act, 2006 did not have additional conservation impacts beyond those achieved by PESA.
  • Institutional Recommendation:
    • The study advocates for a single institution capable of balancing conservation and development objectives, which would help navigate the complexities of aligning local economic interests with sustainable conservation practices.

About PESA Act:

  • The provisions of Part IX of the constitution relating to the Panchayats are not applicable to the Fifth Schedule areas.
  • The Parliament may extend these provisions to such areas, subject to such exceptions and modifications as it may specify.
  • Under this provision, the Parliament has enacted the “Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act”, 1996, popularly known as the PESA Act or the Extension Act.
  •  At present, ten states have Fifth Schedule Areas. These are: Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha and Rajasthan. All the ten states have enacted requisite compliance legislations by amending the respective Panchayati Raj Acts.
Objectives of the Act
  • To extend the provisions of Part IX of the Constitution relating to the panchayats to the scheduled areas with certain modifications
  • To provide self-rule for the bulk of the tribal population
  • To have village governance with participatory democracy and to make the gram sabha a nucleus of all activities
  • To evolve a suitable administrative framework consistent with traditional practices
  • To safeguard and to preserve the traditions and customs of tribal communities
  • To empower panchayats at the appropriate levels with specific powers conducive to tribal requirements
  • To prevent panchayats at the higher level from assuming the powers and authority of panchayats at the lower level of the gram sabha
Why are rules under PESA important?
  • PESA rules enable the residents of scheduled areas to strengthen their village-level bodies by transferring power from the government to the gram sabha, a body of all the registered voters of the village.
  • The powers of gram sabhas include maintenance of cultural identity and tradition, control over schemes affecting the tribals, and control over natural resources within the area of a village.
  • The PESA Act thus enables gram sabhas to maintain a safety net over their rights and surroundings against external or internal conflicts. Without proper rules, its implementation is not possible as it is an exercise in decentralising the power from institutionalised structures, back to the village residents.
  • The laws, once formed, will give gram sabhas the power to take decisions not only over their customs and traditionally managed resources, but also on the minerals being excavated from their areas.
  • The rules state that the gram sabha will have to be kept informed by any and all agencies working in their village, and that the gram sabha has the power to approve or stop the work being done within the village limits.
  • The rules also give power to the gram sabhas over:
    • Management of resources over jal, jangal, zameen (water, forest and land), the three major demands of tribals;
    • Management of minor forest produce;
    • Management of mines and minerals;
    • Management of markets;
    • Management of markets human resources;
    • Monitoring and prohibition of the manufacturing, transport, sale and consumption of intoxicants within their village limits;
    • Maintenance of peace and resolving conflicts arising in the village;
    • Protecting tribal customs and traditions;
    • Encouraging customs like ghotul.

-Source: The Hindu


Recently, the Government has notified an amendment to Central Civil Services (Leave) Rules, 1972 to grant maternity leave and other benefits to government employees in case of children born through surrogacy.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Provisions of Notified Amended Rules
  2. About Surrogacy
  3. About Surrogacy (Regulation) Act, 2021
  4. National and State Surrogacy Boards

Provisions of Notified Amended Rules

  • Maternity Leave:
    • Female government employees who have children through surrogacy are entitled to 180 days of maternity leave.
    • This provision applies to both the surrogate mother and the commissioning mother (the intended mother), provided they have fewer than two surviving children.
  • Paternity Leave:
    • The rules grant 15 days of paternity leave to the “commissioning father” (the intended father) who is a male government servant with fewer than two surviving children.
    • This leave can be utilized within six months from the child’s birth.
  • Childcare Leave:
    • The commissioning mother with fewer than two surviving children is eligible for childcare leave as per the Central Civil Services (Leave) Rules.

About Surrogacy

  • Definition:
    • Surrogacy involves a woman giving birth to a child intended for another couple, with the intention of handing the child over to them after birth.
  • Permitted Purposes:
    • Surrogacy is allowed only for altruistic purposes or for couples with proven infertility or disease.
  • Prohibited Purposes:
    • Commercial surrogacy, including practices like sale, prostitution, or other forms of exploitation, is strictly prohibited.
  • Child Status:
    • A child born via surrogacy is legally considered the biological child of the intended couple.
  • Abortion:
    • Abortion of a fetus conceived through surrogacy is permitted only with the surrogate mother’s consent and according to the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 2021.

About Surrogacy (Regulation) Act, 2021

The Act prohibits commercial surrogacy, but allows altruistic surrogacy. 

  •  In altruistic surrogacy, the surrogate mother receives no monetary remuneration other than medical bills and insurance coverage during the pregnancy.
  • Commercial surrogacy refers to surrogacy or associated treatments that are performed for a monetary gain or reward (in cash or kind) that exceeds the cost of basic medical care and insurance coverage.

Surrogacy is permitted when it is:

  • For intending couples who suffer from proven infertility;
  • Altruistic
  • Not for commercial purposes
  • Not for producing children for sale, prostitution or other forms of exploitation
  • For any condition or disease specified through regulations.
Eligibility criteria for intending couple
  • The intending couple should have a‘certificate of essentiality’ and a ‘certificate of eligibility’ issued by the appropriate authority.
  • A certificate of essentiality will be issued upon fulfilment of the following conditions:
    • A certificate of proven infertility of one or both members of the intending couple from a District Medical Board;
    • An order of parentage and custody of the surrogate child passed by a Magistrate’s court; and
    • Insurance coverage for a period of 16 months covering postpartum delivery complications for the surrogate.
  • The certificate of eligibility to the intending couple is issued upon fulfilment of the following conditions:
    • The couple being Indian citizens and married for at least five years;
    • Between 23 to 50 years old (wife) and 26 to 55 years old (husband);
    • They do not have any surviving child (biological, adopted or surrogate); this would not include a child who is mentally or physically challenged or suffers from life threatening disorder or fatal illness;
    • Other conditions that may be specified by regulations.
Eligibility criteria for surrogate mother
  • To obtain a certificate of eligibility from the appropriate authority, the surrogate mother has to be:
    • close relative of the intending couple;
    • married woman having a child of her own;
    • 25 to 35 years old;
    • surrogate only once in her lifetime;
    • Possess a certificate of medical and psychological fitness for surrogacy.
  • Further, the surrogate mother cannot provide her own gametes for surrogacy.

National and State Surrogacy Boards

The central and the state governments shall constitute the National Surrogacy Board (NSB) and the State Surrogacy Boards (SSB), respectively.

Functions of the NSB include, 

  • Advising the central government on policy matters relating to surrogacy;
  • Laying down the code of conduct of surrogacy clinics;
  • Supervising the functioning of SSBs.

Parentage and abortion of surrogate child

  • A child born out of a surrogacy procedure will be deemed to be the biological child of the intending couple. 
  • An abortion of the surrogate child requires the written consent of the surrogate mother and the authorisation of the appropriate authority.
  • This authorisation must be compliant with the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971.  
  • Further, the surrogate mother will have an option to withdraw from surrogacy before the embryo is implanted in her womb.
Offences and penalties
  • The offences under the Act include:
    • Undertaking or advertising commercial surrogacy;
    • Exploiting the surrogate mother;
    • Abandoning, exploiting or disowning a surrogate child; and
    • Selling or importing human embryo or gametes for surrogacy.
  • The penalty for such offences is imprisonment up to 10 years and a fine up to 10 lakh rupees.

-Source: The Hindu


Public Examinations (Prevention Of Unfair Means) Act aims to prevent unfair means in the public examinations system.


GS II: Education

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Public Examinations (Prevention of Unfair Means) Act
  2. Public Examination
  3. Use of Unfair Means
  4. Rationale for the Law
  5. Penalties

Public Examinations (Prevention of Unfair Means) Act

Computer-Based Test (CBT)
  • Parameters: The rules lay down full parameters of Computer Based Tests (CBT) — from the registration of candidates, allocation of centres, and issue of admit cards to the opening and distribution of question papers, evaluation of answers, and the final recommendations.
  • Question Papers: The opening and distribution of question papers involve downloading the question paper from the main server to the local server in the public examination centre, and then uploading and digitally transferring the question papers to individual computers authorised for the candidates.
  • National Recruitment Agency: The central government’s National Recruitment Agency will prepare the norms, standards, and guidelines for CBTs in consultation with stakeholders. Once finalized, these norms will be notified by the Centre.
  • Norms and Standards: The norms, standards, and guidelines will cover both physical and digital infrastructure and activities, including the standard operating procedure (SOP) for registration of public examination centres; space requirements at CBT centres and layout of seating; specifications and layout of computer nodes, server and network infrastructure, and the electronic platform; candidate check-in, biometric registration, security and screening; setting and loading of question papers; invigilation; and all post-examination activities.
Centre Coordinator
  • Appointment: The rules provide for the appointment of a Centre Coordinator for Public Examinations, who may be “serving or retired employees of the Central Government, State Government, Public Sector Undertakings, Public Sector Banks, Government Universities, autonomous bodies, and other Government Organizations.”
  • Responsibilities: The Centre Coordinator will represent the public examination authority for coordination of activities of the various service providers and the examination authority, and for overseeing the compliance of all norms, standards, and guidelines for the exam.
  • Definition of Service Provider: The rules also define the term “service provider” for the purposes of the Act.

Public Examination

Which Exams Are Covered by the Law?
  • Definition: Section 2(k) of The Public Examinations (Prevention of Unfair Means) Act, 2024 defines a “public examination” as “any examination conducted by the public examination authority” listed in the Schedule of the Act, or any “such other authority as may be notified by the Central Government”.
  • Authorities Listed:
    • Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), which conducts the Civil Services Examination, Combined Defence Services Examinations, Combined Medical Services Examination, Engineering Services Examination, etc.
    • Staff Selection Commission (SSC), which recruits for Group C (non-technical) and Group B (non-gazetted) jobs in the central government.
    • Railway Recruitment Boards (RRBs), which recruit Groups C and D staff in the Indian Railways.
    • Institute of Banking Personnel Selection (IBPS), which hires at all levels for nationalised banks and regional rural banks (RRBs).
    • National Testing Agency (NTA), which conducts the JEE (Main), NEET-UG, UGC-NET, the Common University Entrance Test (CUET), etc.
  • Additional Authorities: The central government can add new authorities in the Schedule through a notification as and when required.
  • Definition of Candidate: The law defines a “candidate” in these exams as “a person who has been granted permission by the public examination authority to appear in public examination” as well as “a person authorized to act as a scribe on his behalf in the public examination”.

Use of Unfair Means

What Constitutes the Use of Unfair Means for the Purposes of the Act?
  • Unfair Means Listed: Section 3 of the Act lists 15 actions that amount to using unfair means in public examinations “for monetary or wrongful gain”.
    • Leakage of question paper or answer key or part thereof and colluding in such leakage.
    • Accessing or taking possession of question paper or an Optical Mark Recognition response sheet without authority.
    • Tampering with answer sheets including Optical Mark Recognition response sheets.
    • Providing solutions to one or more questions by any unauthorised person during a public examination.
    • Directly or indirectly assisting the candidate in a public examination.
    • Tampering with any document necessary for short-listing of candidates or finalising the merit or rank of a candidate.
    • Tampering with the computer network or a computer resource or a computer system.
    • Creation of fake website and conduct of fake examination, issuance of fake admit cards or offer letters to cheat or for monetary gain.
  • Reporting Incidents: The rules provide a detailed framework and format for reporting incidents of use of unfair means.
    • Venue In-Charge Responsibilities: If any incident of unfair means or offense occurs, the venue in-charge shall prepare a report along with his findings in Form 1 and send it to the Regional Officer through the Centre Coordinator. If a prima facie case is made out for filing a First Information Report, the venue in-charge shall take necessary action.
    • Management Responsibilities: If persons below the level of Management or Board of Directors of the service provider resort to unfair means or fail to report the incident, the Centre Coordinator shall report the matter to the Regional Officer in Form 2. The Regional Officer shall enquire and, if satisfied, direct the Centre Coordinator to file the First Information Report.
  • Definition of Venue In-Charge: A “person nominated by the examination conducting service provider to supervise, coordinate and manage the activities of different service providers and to ensure that the norms or standards and the guidelines notified for conduct of public examination are complied with”.

Rationale for the Law

  • Justification: The ongoing controversy over alleged paper leaks provides an obvious justification for such an Act. Future incidents of the use of unfair means in examinations will be prosecuted under the provisions of the law.
  • Investigation Findings: An investigation by The Indian Express found at least 48 instances of paper leaks in 16 states over the last five years, disrupting the hiring process for government jobs and affecting at least 1.51 crore applicants for about 1.2 lakh posts.
  • Statement of Objects and Reasons: Malpractices in public examinations lead to delays and cancellation of examinations, adversely impacting the prospects of millions of youth. At present, there is no specific substantive law to deal with unfair means adopted or offences committed. Comprehensive Central legislation is imperative to identify and effectively deal with vulnerabilities in the examination system.
  • Objective: The Bill aims to bring greater transparency, fairness, and credibility to the public examination systems and reassure the youth that their sincere and genuine efforts will be fairly rewarded and their future is safe.


  • Fines and Imprisonment: The new law provides for fines of Rs 1 crore and up to 10 years in prison. It is also expected to serve as a “model draft for States to adopt at their discretion”.

-Source: Indian Express


The death toll of pigs following the outbreak of the African Swine Fever (ASF) disease in Mizoram since February has crossed 3,350, officials said recently.


Focus: GS-III Science and Technology

 Dimensions of this Article:

  1. What is African Swine Fever?
  2. What are the symptoms of African swine fever?

What is African Swine Fever?

  • African Swine Fever (ASF) does not affect humans but can be catastrophic for pigs.
  • In 2019, the outbreak of the disease swept through pig populations in China — which is the largest exporter and consumer of pork — leading to large-scale cullings.
  • ASF is a severe viral disease that affects wild and domestic pigs typically resulting in an acute haemorrhagic fever.
  • The disease has a case fatality rate (CFR) of almost 100 per cent.
  • Its routes of transmission include direct contact with an infected or wild pig (alive or dead), indirect contact through ingestion of contaminated material such as food waste, feed or garbage, or through biological vectors such as ticks.
  • Any country with a pig sector is at risk of the spread of the disease and its spread is most likely via meat arriving aboard ships and planes, which is incorrectly disposed of and by meat carried by individual travellers.
What are the symptoms of African swine fever?
  • High Fever
  • Weakness and Difficulty Standing
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Red or blue blotches on the skin (Particularly around ears and snout)
  • Coughing or labored breathing

-Source: The Hindu


A rare Indian Painted Frog was recently sighted at Telangana’s Kawal Tiger Reserve, marking a significant find outside its usual habitats.


GS III: Species in News

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Indian Painted Frog
  2. Key Facts about Kawal Tiger Reserve

About Indian Painted Frog:

  • Species Overview:
    • The Indian Painted Frog, belonging to the Microhylidae family, is known scientifically as Uperodon taprobanicus.
    • It inhabits regions of Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, southern and eastern India, and Nepal, at elevations up to approximately 1300 meters.
    • In India, this species is prevalent in states like West Bengal, Odisha, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh, with a higher concentration in the southern Western and Eastern Ghats.
  • Physical Characteristics:
    • Adult frogs can reach lengths of up to 75 millimetres (7.5 cm) from snout to vent, with females generally being larger than males.
    • The species is distinguished by its smooth, rounded body and vibrant coloration, typically brown with bright patches of orange or yellow.
  • Conservation Status:
    • According to the IUCN Red List, the Indian Painted Frog is classified as Least Concern.

Key Facts about Kawal Tiger Reserve:

  • Location:
    • Situated in the northeastern part of Telangana (Old Adilabad district), bordered by the Godavari River on one side and Maharashtra on the other.
  • Geographical and Ecological Features:
    • It is part of the Deccan peninsula-central highlands.
    • The reserve includes catchments for the Godavari and Kadam rivers, which flow southward.
    • It forms a corridor connecting the Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve in Maharashtra to the north and the Indravati Tiger Reserve in Chhattisgarh to the northeast.
  • Habitat and Vegetation:
    • The reserve boasts a variety of habitats including dense forests, grasslands, open areas, rivers, streams, and water bodies.
    • Predominantly consists of Southern Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest.
  • Flora:
    • Notably includes extensive teak forests along with bamboo.
    • Houses around 673 recorded plant species, including significant ones like Anogeissus latifolia, Mitragyna parviflora, Terminalia crenulata, Terminalia arjuna, and Boswellia serrata.
  • Fauna:
    • Features a diverse range of wildlife typical of the Deccan Plateau.
    • Major animals include nilgai, chousinga, chinkara, black buck, sambar, spotted deer, wild dog, wolf, jackal, fox, tiger, leopard, and jungle cat.

-Source: The Hindu


The Indian Army has recently launched a skin bank facility.


Facts for Prelims

About Indian Army’s Skin Bank:

  • Purpose:
    • Launched to assist in the treatment of severe skin burn injuries and other skin-related conditions for service members and their families.
  • Facility Details:
    • The first-of-its-kind in the Armed Forces Medical Services, staffed by trained medical professionals, including plastic surgeons, tissue engineers, and specialized technicians.
    • It functions as a centralized hub for the collection, processing, storage, and distribution of skin grafts, serving military medical centers nationwide.
What is a Skin Bank?
  • A skin bank is a facility where skin from an eligible donor is taken, processed, and stored under appropriate temperatures for up to five years.
  • Skin from a deceased person can be donated within six hours post-mortem.
  • Anyone can donate skin, regardless of sex and blood group, provided they are at least 18 years old.
  • Skin from individuals with conditions like AIDS, Hepatitis B & C, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Skin Cancer, Active skin Disease, and Septicemia is considered unsuitable for donation.
  • Donated skin is collected and processed over five to six weeks and then frozen until required.
  • Typically preserved in 85% glycerol solution, stored between 4-5 degrees Celsius for up to five years.
  • When a burn victim needs skin, a procedure called skin grafting is performed.
What is Skin Grafting?
  • A procedure where healthy skin is transplanted to an area where the skin is damaged or missing.
  • There are two main types of skin grafts:
    • Autograft: Skin taken from another part of the patient’s own body.
    • Allograft: Skin taken from a donor, often sourced from a skin bank.
  • Any skin can be used on any patient, and within two to three weeks post-grafting, doctors can assess if the patient is accepting the graft.

-Source: India Today

July 2024