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Current Affairs 29 January 2024

  1. Revamping Higher Education Accreditation: Transition to Binary System
  2. Kashi Vishwanath-Gyanvapi Mosque Matter
  3. Sri Sri Auniati Satra Vaishnavite Monastery
  4. Navigating Challenges: Reforms Needed in India’s Geographical Indication (GI) Tags Journey
  5. Free Movement Regime to end at Myanmar border
  6. Market Access Initiative (MAI) Scheme
  7. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)


The Central government plans to overhaul the accreditation system for higher educational institutes by the end of the year. It aims to replace the current practice of assigning a score and corresponding grade with a binary system.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC)
  2. What is the difference between assessment and accreditation?
  3. Advantages of NAAC Accreditation
  4. Overhaul of Higher Education Accreditation System in India

About National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC)

  • The University Grants Commission established the NAAC as an autonomous body (UGC).
  • It was founded in 1994 as a result of recommendations made under the National Education Policy (1986).
  • The Karnataka Societies Registration Act of 1960 governs its registration.
  • Vision: To make quality the distinguishing feature of higher education in India through a combination of internal and external quality evaluation, promotion, and sustainability initiatives.
  • Bengaluru is the headquarters.
NAAC’s objectives are as follows
  • To arrange for periodic evaluation and accreditation of institutions of higher education or units thereof, as well as specific academic programmes or projects;
  • To stimulate the academic environment in higher education institutions in order to promote the quality of teaching-learning and research;
  • In higher education, to promote self-evaluation, accountability, autonomy, and innovation;
  • To conduct quality-related research, consulting, and training programmes.

What is the difference between assessment and accreditation?

  • The performance of an institution or its units is evaluated using predetermined criteria.
  • Accreditation is quality certification for a set period of time, which in the case of NAAC is five years.
  • The University Grants Commission (UGC) made accreditation mandatory for Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) in a gazette notification in January 2013.
How the Accreditation Process Works:
  • The Assessment and Accreditation process entails the following steps: online submission of Institutional Information for Quality Assessment (IIQA) and Self-Study Report (SSR).
  • NAAC Data Validation and Verification (DVV).
  • NAAC Student Satisfaction Survey (SSS).
  • Visit by a Peer Team.
  • Institutional Evaluation.

Advantages of NAAC Accreditation

  • A higher education institution learns whether it meets certain quality standards set by the evaluator in terms of curriculum, faculty, infrastructure, research, and financial well-being through a multi-layered process steered by the NAAC.
  • The NAAC assigns institutions grades ranging from A++ to C based on these parameters. If an institution receives a D, it is not accredited.
  • Apart from recognition, accreditation assists institutions in attracting capital because funding agencies seek objective data for performance funding.
  • Through an informed review process, it assists an institution in determining its strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities.
  • NAAC accreditation benefits students pursuing higher education abroad because many global higher education authorities insist on the institution where the student has studied being recognised and accredited.

Overhaul of Higher Education Accreditation System in India

Government’s Plan:

  • The Central government aims to revamp the accreditation system for higher education institutes by the end of the year.

Binary System Proposal:

  • The proposed shift involves replacing the current scoring and grading system with a binary system.
  • Institutions will be categorized as either accredited or unaccredited, eliminating specific scores or grades.

Committee Recommendations:

  • Recommendations by the committee, led by former ISRO chairman Dr. K Radhakrishnan, have been accepted by the Education Ministry.

Inclusion of IITs:

  • The committee proposes bringing Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) under the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC), replacing their internal evaluation systems.

Binary Accreditation System Details:

  • The current eight-point grading system will be replaced by a binary system: Accredited or Not Accredited.
  • A sub-category, “Awaiting Accreditation,” will cover institutes close to the threshold level.
  • The accreditation process will involve “crowdsourcing” feedback from various stakeholders, reducing dependence on expert inspections.

Formation of National Accreditation Council (NAAC):

  • The committee suggests creating a single overarching agency, the National Accreditation Council (NAAC), integrating the accreditation of institutes and courses.
  • NAAC will also subsume the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF).

Implementation of Binary Accreditation:

  • Higher education institutions will receive either an “Accredited” or “Not Accredited” tag.
  • “Not Accredited” will have two sub-categories: “Awaiting Accreditation” for institutes needing improvement and “Not Accredited” for those far below standards.

Maturity-Based Graded Accreditation:

  • NAAC introduces “Maturity-Based Graded Accreditation” alongside the binary system.
  • Recognizes institutions from “level one” to “level five,” incentivizing improvement up to “Institution of Global Excellence for Multi-Disciplinary Research and Education.”

Uncertainty Regarding IIT Participation:

  • It remains unclear whether Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) will be mandated to participate in the new accreditation system.

-Source: The Hindu


The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) in its scientific survey report on the Gyanvapi mosque complex has concluded that “there existed a Hindu temple prior to the construction of the existing structure” at the site.


GS II: Polity and Governance

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Kashi Vishwanath-Gyanvapi Mosque Matter: Unraveling the Legal History
  2. Key Findings from the ASI Report on Kashi Vishwanath-Gyanvapi Mosque: Unveiling Historical Insights
  3. Key Takeaways from the ASI Report on Kashi Vishwanath-Gyanvapi Mosque: Navigating Complex Realities

Kashi Vishwanath-Gyanvapi Mosque Matter: Unraveling the Legal History

Origin of the Legal Tussle:
  • Dates back to a 1991 petition filed in Varanasi district court, seeking the restoration of Gyanvapi land to the Kashi Vishwanath temple.
  • Alleges that the mosque was constructed under Aurangzeb’s orders, involving the destruction of a part of the temple in the 16th century.
Revival of the Case:
  • In 2019, a petition was filed after the Supreme Court’s Babri Masjid-Ram Janmabhoomi dispute verdict.
  • Varanasi district court directed the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) to conduct a scientific survey, leading to a series of legal actions.
Interruption by Allahabad High Court:
  • In 2021, Allahabad High Court halted proceedings in the Varanasi court, citing the Places of Worship Act 1991.
  • The Act prevents changes in the religious character of a place of worship as of August 15, 1947.
Recent Developments – ASI Survey:
  • In July 2023, Varanasi district court tasked the ASI to conduct a scientific survey of the mosque.
  • The objective was to ascertain if the mosque was constructed over a pre-existing structure of a Hindu temple.
  • The Supreme Court temporarily paused the survey, which was eventually initiated by the ASI in August 2023.

Key Findings from the ASI Report on Kashi Vishwanath-Gyanvapi Mosque: Unveiling Historical Insights

Destruction Under Aurangzeb’s Reign:

  • The pre-existing structure, likely a Hindu temple, was likely destroyed during the 17th century, under Aurangzeb’s rule.

Aurangzeb’s Inscription:

  • An engraved loose stone recorded the mosque’s construction during Aurangzeb’s reign, specifically between 1676 and 1677.

Historical Documentation:

  • Maasir-i-Alamgiri (1947) by Sir Jadunath Sarkar supports the destruction of the pre-existing structure, following Aurangzeb’s orders to demolish schools and temples.

Demolition of Vishwanath Temple:

  • Aurangzeb’s officers reportedly demolished the Vishwanath temple at Kashi on September 2, 1669.

Multilingual Inscriptions:

  • A total of 34 inscriptions found during the survey, in Devanagari, Grantha, Telugu, and Kannada scripts.

Deities’ Names and Significance:

  • Inscriptions revealed names of deities like Janardhana (Vishnu), Rudra (Shiva), and “Umesvara.”
  • Significance attached to terms like Maha-muktimandapa mentioned in three inscriptions.

Mutilation of Vyala Figures:

  • Vyala figures, Hindu mythological creatures, mutilated for reuse, along with floral designs, indicating repurposing of the pre-existing temple.

Integration of Central Chamber:

  • The central chamber and main entrance of the pre-existing temple are part of the current structure.
  • The central chamber now serves as the central hall, while the original entrance is blocked.

Architectural Decorations:

  • Original entrance adorned with carvings of animals, birds, and an ornamental torana (gateway).

Sculptural Remains and Cellars:

  • Sculptures of Hindu deities and architectural members found in cellars, providing evidence of a large Hindu temple.

Reuse of Pillars:

  • Pillars from the pre-existing temple repurposed to create cellars in the eastern part of the platform.

Ongoing Legal Battle:

  • The report adds significant historical depth to the ongoing legal dispute surrounding the Kashi Vishwanath-Gyanvapi Mosque case.

Key Takeaways from the ASI Report on Kashi Vishwanath-Gyanvapi Mosque: Navigating Complex Realities

Complicated Legal Battle:

  • The Gyanvapi Masjid case remains entangled in a complex legal battle with profound historical and religious implications.

Transparency through ASI Report:

  • The Varanasi court’s decision to disclose the ASI report is a significant move toward transparency in addressing the longstanding dispute.

Opposition’s Silence:

  • The Opposition has maintained silence on the matter, indicating a cautious approach or a strategic wait-and-watch stance.

RSS and BJP’s Approach:

  • The RSS and BJP expressed no urgency in delving into the issue, preferring to let the courts lead the way in resolving the matter.

Comparisons with Ayodhya Ram Temple Issue:

  • An RSS functionary highlighted the mobilizational aspect of the Ayodhya Ram temple issue in the 1980s, positioning it as a means to address concerns and reach out to the public.

Evolution of Societal Awareness:

  • Unlike the past, where society was less attuned to cultural concerns, the current scenario sees society actively embracing these concerns collectively.

Cultural Concerns in Mainstream Discourse:

  • Cultural concerns, once taken up by the Sangh as mobilizational issues, have now become collective concerns embedded in mainstream societal discourse.

-Source: Indian Express


Sri Sri Auniati Satra is a more than 350-year-old Vaishnavite monastery in Assam’s Majuli district.


GS I: History

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Key Facts about Sri Sri Auniati Satra Vaishnavite Monastery
  2. Vaishnavism

Key Facts about Sri Sri Auniati Satra Vaishnavite Monastery

Establishment and Historical Significance:

  • Founded in 1653 in Majuli, Assam.
  • Boasts a rich history of over 350 years, making it one of the oldest Satras in the region.

Vaishnavism and Satra:

  • A Satra serves as an institutional center for Assamese Vaishnavism, a bhakti movement originating in the 15th century.

Geographical Location:

  • Located in Majuli, the world’s largest inhabited river island, situated in the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India.

Religious Significance:

  • Center for Assamese Vaishnavism, focusing on the worship of Lord Krishna.
  • The idol of Lord Krishna (Govinda) is believed to have originated from the Lord Jagannath Temple at Puri.

Cultural Heritage Preservation:

  • Beyond worship, Vaishnavite monasteries like Auniati Satra play a pivotal role in preserving traditional art forms, literature, and cultural practices.
  • Serve as vital hubs for the promotion and sustenance of the region’s cultural heritage.

Educational and Spiritual Activities:

  • Traditionally functions as a center for learning and spiritual activities.
  • Monks and disciples engage in religious studies, meditation, and community service.

Bhaona and Traditional Arts:

  • Bhaona, a traditional art form, is a significant cultural practice at the Satra.
  • Involves a blend of acting, music, and musical instruments.
  • Aims to convey religious messages to villagers through entertaining performances.
  • Typically, the main drama is preceded by the musical performance called the Gayan-Bayan.



  • Vaishnavism is a prominent bhakti (devotional) movement within Hinduism, focusing on deep devotion and love towards the god Vishnu and his various incarnations.
Key Features:
  • Central Focus on Devotion to Vishnu:
    • Emphasizes devotion (bhakti) to Vishnu, considered the Supreme Being and sustainer of the universe.
    • Vaishnavas cultivate a personal relationship with Vishnu, expressing love, reverence, and devotion.
  • Incarnations of Vishnu:
    • Vishnu is believed to have incarnated on Earth in various forms, known as avatars, to restore cosmic order and righteousness.
    • The ten primary avatars, called Dashavatara, include popular incarnations like Rama and Krishna.
  • Goal of Liberation (Moksha):
    • Vaishnavism places a strong emphasis on the path of bhakti for liberation (moksha) from the cycle of birth and death (samsara) and union with Vishnu.
  • Variety of Sects:
    • Vaishnavism encompasses different sects and groups with varying interpretations of the relationship between the individual soul (jiva) and God.
Major Vaishnavite Sects:
  • Srivaishnava Sect:
    • Emphasizes qualified nondualism (vishishtadvaita) based on the teachings of Ramanuja.
  • Madhva Sect:
    • Professes dualism, asserting the separate existence of God and the soul, following the philosophy of Madhva.
  • Pushtimarg Sect:
    • Maintains pure nondualism according to Vallabhacharya’s teachings.
  • Gaudiya Sect:
    • Founded by Chaitanya, teaches inconceivable duality and nonduality.

-Source: The Hindu


India’s Geographical Indication (GI) tags journey of over two decades faces challenges, with limited outcomes indicating the need for reforms in the registration processes.


GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Geographical Indications (GI) Tag
  2. Concerns Regarding GI Tags in India
  3. Realizing the Potential of GI-based Products

Geographical Indications (GI) Tag

Definition and Importance:
  • Geographical Indications of Goods indicate the country or place of origin of a product.
  • They assure consumers of the product’s quality and distinctiveness derived from its specific geographical locality.
  • GI tags are an essential component of intellectual property rights (IPRs) and are protected under international agreements like the Paris Convention and TRIPS.
Administration and Registration:
  • Geographical Indications registration in India is governed by the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.
  • The registration and protection are administered by the Geographical Indication Registry under the Department of Industry Promotion and Internal Trade (DIPIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  • The registration is valid for 10 years, and it can be renewed for further periods of 10 years each.
Significance and Examples:
  • GI tags provide a unique identity and reputation to products based on their geographical origin.
  • The first product in India to receive a GI tag was Darjeeling tea.
  • Karnataka has the highest number of GI tags with 47 registered products, followed by Tamil Nadu with 39.
Ownership and Proprietorship:
  • Any association, organization, or authority established by law can be a registered proprietor of a GI tag.
  • The registered proprietor’s name is entered in the Register of Geographical Indication for the applied product.
  • Protection and Enforcement:
  • Geographical Indications protect the interests of producers and prevent unauthorized use of the product’s name or origin.
  • Enforcement of GI rights helps maintain the quality and reputation of the products associated with their specific geographical regions.
Location of the Geographical Indications Registry:
  • The Geographical Indications Registry is located in Chennai, India.

Concerns Regarding GI Tags in India:

  • Outdated Legislation: The GI Act of 1999, framed over two decades ago, requires timely amendments to align with current challenges and realities.
  • Complex Application Processes: Registration forms and application processing times need simplification for easier compliance by producers seeking Geographical Indication (GI) tags.
  • Low Application Acceptance Ratio: The current application acceptance ratio in India is only about 46%, raising concerns about the effectiveness of the GI registration process.
  • Institutional Development Deficiency: Lack of suitable institutional development hampers the effective implementation of GI protection mechanisms, affecting the overall success of the GI system.
  • Post-Registration Challenges: Producers often face challenges post-GI registration due to a lack of guidance and support, hindering them from fully realizing the benefits of the GI tag.
  • Undefined “Producers” and Intermediaries: Lack of clarity in defining “producers” in the GI Act of 1999 leads to the involvement of intermediaries, potentially diluting the intended advantages for genuine producers.
  • Intermediary Benefit Concerns: Intermediaries benefit from GIs, posing a challenge to ensuring that the advantages of GI protection primarily go to authentic producers.
  • Neglected Attention Compared to Other IP Protections: Disputes, especially in products like Darjeeling tea and Basmati rice, highlight that GIs receive less attention compared to patents, trademarks, and copyrights.
  • Limited Academic Focus: Limited academic focus on GIs is evident, with only seven publications from India, indicating a gap in scholarly research on geographical indications.
  • Growing Academic Interest Abroad: A recent surge in publications, with 35 articles published in 2021, indicates growing academic interest in GIs; however, European nations, such as Italy, Spain, and France, lead in GI-related academic publications.

Realizing the Potential of GI-based Products:

  • Incentivize Grassroots Producers: Government initiatives should incentivize producers at the grassroots level, encouraging more producers to seek Geographical Indication (GI) status.
  • Exclude “Non-Producers” from Benefits: Laws should be structured to exclude “non-producers” from benefiting, ensuring that the direct advantages of GI protection go to genuine producers.
  • Technology and Skill-building: Promote technology adoption, skill-building, and digital literacy among GI stakeholders to facilitate modernization and enhance competitiveness.
  • Collaboration with Trade Associations: Government agencies should collaborate with trade associations to organize exhibitions and leverage various media channels for promoting GI-based products.
  • International Promotion by Embassies: Indian embassies should actively promote GI-based products to encourage growth in foreign markets, enhancing global visibility.
  • Favorable International Tariffs and WTO Focus: Advocate for favorable international tariff regimes and emphasize GI products at the World Trade Organization (WTO) to boost their global presence.
  • Integration with One District One Product Scheme: Integrate Geographical Indications with the One District One Product scheme to enhance promotion and expand market reach.
  • Market Outlet Schemes, Especially in Rural Areas: Develop market outlet schemes, particularly in rural markets (gramin haats), to enhance the visibility and accessibility of GI products.
  • Establish Testing Laboratories at Marketplaces: Establish testing laboratories at marketplaces to ensure consumer confidence in the quality of GI products, contributing to market trust.
  • Align Startups with GIs and SDGs: Encourage startups to align with Geographical Indications and link their performance with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to contribute to social and economic development.

-Source: The Hindu


The Home Minister recently said the Free Movement Regime (FMR) agreement with Myanmar would be reconsidered to stop border residents from moving into each other’s country without any paperwork.


GS II: International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Free Movement Regime (FMR) between India and Myanmar: A Shift in Policy
  2. Indo-Myanmar Border Dynamics: Security and Border Management

Free Movement Regime (FMR) between India and Myanmar: A Shift in Policy

Introduction to FMR:

  • The Free Movement Regime (FMR) is a bilateral agreement between India and Myanmar allowing border tribes to travel up to 16 km inside the other country without a visa.
  • Launched in 2018 as part of the Act East policy, it aimed to promote movement, trade, and cultural exchange among ethnically similar communities along the border.

Historical Context:

  • The boundary demarcated by the British in 1826 divided ethnically similar communities into two nations.
  • FMR intended to address this by enabling free movement without visas, fostering local trade and business.

Current Status:

  • FMR has been defunct since 2020, initially due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Post the military coup in Myanmar (2021), and escalating refugee crises, India suspended FMR in September 2022.
  • Concerns arose over unintended consequences, such as illegal immigration, drug trafficking, and gun-running.

New Development:

  • The Indian government has decided to conclude the Free Movement Regime with Myanmar.
  • Initiatives include initiating tenders for an advanced smart fencing system along the entire India-Myanmar border.

Rationale for the Shift:

  • Insurgent groups exploit FMR to conduct attacks on the Indian side and escape to Myanmar.
  • The move aims to curb illegal immigration, drug smuggling, and gold trafficking.
  • In September 2023, Manipur’s Chief Minister advocated winding up FMR to address concerns related to illegal immigration.


  • Potential opposition from states like Nagaland and Mizoram.
  • While acknowledging state concerns, border security and management fall under the Centre’s jurisdiction.

Indo-Myanmar Border Dynamics: Security and Border Management

Border Characteristics:

  • The Indo-Myanmar border spans 1,643 km, with states like Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, and Mizoram sharing this boundary.
  • The demarcation of 1,472 km out of the total length has been completed, leaving two un-demarcated portions in Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur.
Security Concerns:
  • Secessionist Movements:
    • Greater Nagaland movement destabilizes the border, aspiring to include areas from both India and Myanmar.
  • Support to Insurgents and Terrorism:
    • Insurgents in India’s North Eastern states maintain ties with groups in Myanmar, receiving political, economic, logistic, and military support.
    • The porous border facilitates insurgent safe havens.
  • Narcotics Smuggling:
    • India’s proximity to the Golden Triangle results in rampant drug trafficking, especially synthetic drugs to and from Myanmar.
Border Management Measures:
  • Security Forces:
    • The Assam Rifles, known as “Friends of the North East People,” is deployed along the Indo-Myanmar border.
  • Modern Surveillance and Security Tools:
    • Deployment of modern weapons and equipment like UAVs, BFSRs, and Laser Range Finders for effective border security.
  • Border Fencing:
    • Initiatives to fence the border to curb infiltration, smuggling, and illegal activities.
  • Comprehensive Border Infrastructure Project:
    • Undertaking a comprehensive project to enhance infrastructure along the India-Myanmar border.
  • Integrated Check Posts (ICPs):
    • Setting up ICPs at major entry points on land borders for streamlined cross-border movements.
  • Border Area Development Programme (BADP):
    • MHA’s developmental initiatives under BADP contribute to a holistic approach to border management.

-Source: The Hindu


Ahead of the interim Budget 2024, exporters have urged the government to allocate funds worth $3.88 billion for the Market Access Initiative (MAI) scheme.


GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Market Access Initiative (MAI) Scheme

Market Access Initiative (MAI) Scheme:

Export Promotion Catalyst:

  • MAI Scheme designed as an export promotion initiative aimed at consistently boosting India’s exports.

Focus on Specific Products and Markets:

  • Adopts a focus product-focus country approach, strategically targeting specific markets and products identified through market studies and surveys.

Target Beneficiaries:

  • Export Promotion Organizations, Trade Promotion Organizations, National Level Institutions, Research Institutions, Universities, Laboratories, and Exporters eligible for assistance.

Scope of Assistance:

  • Assistance extended for activities like Marketing Projects Abroad, Capacity Building, Support for Statutory Compliances, Studies, Project Development, Developing Foreign Trade Facilitation Web Portal, and supporting Cottage and Handicrafts units.

Eligible Agencies:

  • Departments of Central Government, Central/State Government Organizations, Indian Missions abroad, Export Promotion Councils, Trade Promotion Organizations, Commodity Boards, Recognized Apex Trade Bodies, Industrial & Artisan Clusters, and Individual Exporters for specific purposes.

Financial Assistance Structure:

  • Fixed level of assistance for each eligible activity under the scheme.
  • Funding on a cost-sharing basis, with a sharing pattern ranging from 65% to 50% at the minimum.

Activities Covered:

  • Marketing Projects Abroad to enhance market presence.
  • Capacity Building initiatives for stakeholders.
  • Support for Statutory Compliances.
  • Conducting Studies for informed decision-making.
  • Project Development for export-oriented projects.
  • Developing Foreign Trade Facilitation Web Portal for streamlined processes.
  • Support for Cottage and Handicrafts units to boost their exports.

Administrative Authority:

  • Administered by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, through the Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT).

-Source: Business Standards


Health experts list the causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease beyond smoking, including environmental toxins, genetic predispositions, and occupational hazards.


GS II: Health

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):

  • Chronic inflammatory lung disease causing obstructed airflow from the lungs.
  • Two Main Forms:
    • Chronic bronchitis: Involves persistent cough with mucus.
    • Emphysema: Involves gradual lung damage.
  • Most COPD cases involve a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Causes of COPD:
  • Primarily caused by prolonged exposure to irritating gases or particulate matter.
  • Mainly linked to tobacco smoke; over 70% of cases in high-income countries result from smoking.
  • Global Variation in Causes:
    • In low- and middle-income countries, 30–40% of COPD cases are due to tobacco smoking, and household air pollution is a significant risk factor.
Signs and Symptoms:
  • Primary symptoms include difficulty breathing, chronic cough (often with phlegm), and fatigue.
  • Flare-ups, exacerbating symptoms, can occur and may necessitate additional medications.
Associated Risks:
  • Individuals with COPD face an elevated risk of heart disease, lung cancer, and various other health conditions.
Treatment Approach:
  • COPD is incurable, but lifestyle changes like quitting smoking and avoiding air pollution can improve the condition.
  • Treatment involves medications, oxygen therapy, and pulmonary rehabilitation.

-Source: The Hindu

February 2024