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Discovery of Ancient Rock Shelter Paintings near Pampa Lake


A team from the Karnataka State Department of Archaeology Museums and Heritage has uncovered rock shelter paintings estimated to be around 2,500 years old near Pampa Lake in the Hampi World Heritage Area.


GS I: History

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Pampa Lake
  2. Key Facts about Tungabhadra River

About Pampa Lake


  • Situated in Koppal district near Hampi in Karnataka.
  • Located to the south of the Tungabhadra River.

Significance in Hindu Mythology:

  • One of the five sacred lakes known as Panch-Sarovar, which include Man Sarovar, Bindu Sarovar, Narayan Sarovar, Pampa Sarovar, and Pushkar Sarovar.

Mythological Importance:

  • Regarded as the place where Pampa, a form of Shiva’s consort Parvati, performed penance to show her devotion to Shiva.
  • Mentioned in the Hindu epic, Ramayana, as the place where Shabhari, a devotee of Lord Rama, waited for his arrival.

Natural Features:

  • Surrounded by hills and temples.
  • Filled with lotuses.

Key Facts about Tungabhadra River

Geographical Importance:

  • Major river in the south Indian peninsula.
  • Major tributary of the Krishna River.


  • Formed by the union of two rivers, Tunga and Bhadra.
  • Both rivers originate on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats.
  • Merge at Koodli in the Shimoga district of Karnataka.


  • Flows northwest before joining the Krishna River at Sangamaleshwaram in Andhra Pradesh.
  • The Krishna River ends in the Bay of Bengal.
  • Total length: 531 km.
  • Catchment area: 28,000 sq. km.
  • Flows through Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

Climate Influence:

  • Influenced chiefly by the South-West monsoon.

Major Tributaries:

  • Varada River.
  • Hagari (Vedathy) River.
  • Dams and Reservoirs:
  • Tunga Anicut Dam.
  • Bhadra Dam.
  • Hemavathy Dam.
  • Tungabhadra Dam.

-Source: The Hindu

June 2024