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Discuss several ways in which microorganisms can help in meeting the current fuel shortage.

Dam failures can indeed lead to disastrous consequences, causing immense damage both environmentally and socio-economically. Several factors contribute to dam failures:

  1. Poor Design and Construction: Insufficient design considerations for the geological and hydrological conditions of the site can cause structural weaknesses.
  2. Lack of Maintenance: Aging dams, if not maintained or rehabilitated, can develop structural issues leading to failures.
  3. Natural Disasters: Seismic activities, such as earthquakes, can lead to the collapse of dams. Heavy rainfall and resultant floods can exceed the dam’s storage capacity, causing overtopping.
  4. Human Errors: Inadequate supervision during construction, lack of periodic safety inspections, and errors in operation can lead to failures.
  5. Sabotage: Although rare, deliberate human interventions or attacks can lead to dam collapses.


  1. Machhu Dam-II, India (1979): Located in Gujarat, the dam’s failure caused the death of thousands. A heavy downpour led to the dam’s overtopping and subsequent collapse, submerging the town of Morbi.
  2. Baldwin Hills Dam, USA (1963): A reservoir dam in California, its failure was attributed to subsidence caused by oil extraction. The collapse resulted in five deaths and considerable property damage.

Conclusion: While dams play a pivotal role in water storage, electricity generation, and flood control, ensuring their stability and safety is of paramount importance. Regular safety audits, stringent design considerations, and timely maintenance can mitigate the risks associated with dam failures.

February 2024