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Editorials/Opinions Analyses For UPSC 13 December 2021


  1. Global economic partnerships in the post-pandemic world
  2. The evolution and framing of the Constitution

Global economic partnerships in the post-pandemic world


The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted lives and livelihoods across the world; an economic catastrophe that affected growth, trade and investments, and employment, among others.

Governments, global institutions, industry, academia and non-profit organisations around the world have joined hands to tackle the global challenge and help countries rebuild their economies.


GS-III: Indian Economy, GS-II: International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Challenges Occurred in the Post-Pandemic Era
  2. Signs of Global Economic Recovery
  3. India’s Role in the Post-Pandemic World
  4. Way forward for the Global Economy in the Post-Pandemic Era

Challenges Occurred in the Post-Pandemic Era

  • The COVID-19 pandemic and post-pandemic global economic recovery era have highlighted the criticality of international cooperation in the following current and future challenges:
    • To revive economic growth,
    • To build competitiveness in the investment climate,
    • To ensure sustainable development,
    • Compliance with climate change obligations while ensuring economic growth,
    • To adapt to technology acceleration,
    • To Revive global supply chain
    • Employment generation,
    • Growing inequality of incomes among countries as well as within people of countries,
    • To Ensure structural changes for the digital economy, e.g., telemedicine, remote work and e-learning, delivery services, etc.

Signs of Global Economic Recovery

In the post-pandemic era, the global economy is showing signs of recovery. Data on world trade for 2021, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) shows the following trends:

  • There is an increase of 22.4% in the value of global merchandise trade compared with 2020;
  • World trade is expected to stand about 15% higher than before the COVID19;
  • The global foreign direct investment (FDI) flows in the first half of 2021 reached an estimated $852 billion, showing stronger than expected rebound momentum. FDI flows in developing economies also increased significantly, totaling $427 billion in the first half of 2021.

India’s Role in the Post-Pandemic World

  • During the COVID pandemic, India supplied medical supplies, equipment, and COVID19 vaccines to more than 150 countries. In the post-pandemic world, India will be critical for the world’s medical supply chain;
  • India is undertaking serious action in meeting its commitments for climate change, and it can help the world to ensure climate-friendly and sustainable development through its best practices as well as it can be benefited from other countries to tackle its local issues;
  • In the post-pandemic world, it will be critical for India to improve on its investment climate and systematically target its export capabilities across sectors and regions. Ease of doing business and new free trade agreements with major markets will help it integrate closely with the world through trade and investment partnerships.

Way forward for the Global Economy in the Post-Pandemic Era

  • Cooperation on trade facilitation for enhancing open and transparent markets, technical assistance, and reduction of complex processes and arrangements must be promoted;
  • Competitiveness for facilitating growth and inclusive development must be ensured;
  • New opportunities and avenues across potential high growth sectors such as manufacturing and startups must be leveraged;
  • An ecosystem of entrepreneurship and innovation with targeted policies and interventions will contribute to enhancing productivity and generating employment;
  • Facilitation of medical supplies and essentials should be to remain a top priority and for this, supply chains will need to be kept flowing;
  • Global collaboration in areas including research and development and Industry 5.0 technologies (Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, the Internet of Things, digital platforms, augmented and virtual reality, and 3D printing) and investments in digital and corporate strategy can similarly become key drivers of industrial development;
  • Adaptation to advanced technologies and tools, building robust infrastructure, and occupational transitions;
  • Skill development and worker training, investments in education and vocational training, and capacity building would be some key areas of focus for filling technology gaps;
  • Scientific cooperation for vaccine development and genome sequencing;
  • International alliances and cooperation on building sustainable solutions, green technology, resource efficiency, sustainable finance, etc., must be promoted to fast-track meeting the sustainable development goals and ensuring inclusive development.

-Source: The Hindu

The evolution and framing of the Constitution


Constitution Day was celebrated on November 26, 2021, with the Government of India organising a grand event in the Central Hall of Parliament to remind citizens that the Indian Constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly this day, 72 years ago.


GS-II: Polity and Constitution

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. The starting steps to the Indian Constitution’s framing
  2. Concept of Separation of Power which is recently in focus
  3. Way Forward

The starting steps to the Indian Constitution’s framing

  • The demand for a constituent assembly to draft a constitution goes back to 1935.
  • The Constitution of India has taken features from the Government of India Act, 1935 which also acted as the blueprint of the Constitution.
  • The 1946 Objective Resolution formed the basis of the Preamble to the Constitution. This reflected the ideals and aspirations that our Constitution strives to achieve.
  • Finally, on 26th November 1949, the Constitution came into being after approximately 3 years of crucial drafting.
  • The Constitution was brought into effect on 26th January, 1950 symbolizing the Poorna Swaraj demand at Lahore session.
  • The evolution of Constitution begins with the Objective Resolution. The ideals of French Revolution i.e., Liberty, Equality, Fraternity have been the foundational values.
  • The curse of untouchability, caste system has been attempted to be removed by incorporating the ideas of social justice under Article 15.
  • The presence of Dr. Ambedkar allowed for diversity of views. Dr. Ambedkar did not agree with many of the methods of national movement such as civil disobedience, non-cooperation. This allowed for different ideas in the Constitution as well.

Concept of Separation of Power which is recently in focus

  • The Constitution of India under Article 50 provides for the Separation of Power between executive and judiciary. This was incorporated in the Constitutional provisions so as to also ensure the accountability between the organs of governance.
  • Under our Constitution the makers provided for the Cabinet form of government with executive deriving its validity from the legislature under Article 74 of the Constitution.
  • The judiciary under Article 13 has the power to review any action of the legislature or the executive on the touchstone of Fundamental Rights under Part 3.
  • The Court under Article 142 of the Constitution derives extraordinary powers to ‘ensure complete justice’ and acts often in the legislative or executive sphere.
  • The recent examples of the Judicial activism such as imposing blanket ban on firecrackers, cancellation of telecom licenses en masse, etc., are against the spirit of separation of powers.

Way Forward

The intricate workings of the Constitution can be understood by the learners through the understanding of the concept of ‘We the People’ and ‘Basic Structure Doctrine’. The Constitution of India has not imposed accountability on the Judiciary deliberately to allow for independence of the judiciary so that it would be functioning within the domains of Constitutionalism.

-Source: The Hindu

December 2023