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Editorials/Opinions Analysis For UPSC 16 August 2023

Editorials/Opinions Analysis For UPSC 16 August 2023


  1. Opportunities, Challenges, and Pathways to Globalize Indian Education
  2. India’s Constitutional Change: Colonialism to Inclusive Justice

Opportunities, Challenges, and Pathways to Globalize Indian Education


  • India’s trajectory in global education has recently accelerated significantly, opening up a wide range of opportunities for students who are more eager than ever to explore a variety of subject areas that fit with their interests, abilities, and the changing demands of the labour market. India’s broad-based educational excellence has developed into a favourable environment for the growth of these chances. Notably, the widespread availability of educational offers across the country has been made possible by the introduction of digital interventions, which has developed into a particular strength.
  • In addition to accelerating access, this digital change has also made it possible to scale educational initiatives, paving the way for a world that is more connected and knowledge-driven. Additionally, strategic developments, most notably those included in the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, are poised to increase the level of international acknowledgment of India’s educational excellence and open doors to further horizons.


  • GS Paper 2 – Government Policies and interventions
  • GS Paper 3 – Education

Mains Question

Talk about the revolutionary changes brought about by the National Education Policy 2020 (NEP). Draw attention to important elements including universal access, flexible learning, and improved research. Describe how NEP deals with the issues that India faces in delivering inclusive and high-quality education. (150 words)

Key Highlights of the National Education Policy for 2020

The National Education Policy 2020 (NEP) makes fundamental adjustments to the Indian educational system:

  • Universal Access: The NEP seeks to enrol every student from preschool through secondary school.
  • Inclusive Strategy: The NEP intends to reintegrate 2 crore out-of-school kids.
  • Restructuring the curriculum: A 5+3+3+4 curriculum structure spans 12 years of formal education and 3 years of preschool.
  • Solid Foundation: Emphasis is placed on fundamental abilities like literacy and maths. Less distinction is made between the academic, extracurricular, and career streams.
  • Language Emphasis: Instruction up to fifth grade will be in the student’s native tongue or a regional tongue.
  • Holistic assessment: Student growth and learning outcomes are tracked on a 360-degree holistic progress card.
  • Growth in Higher Education: The NEP plans to add 3.5 crore seats and a 50% GER in higher education by 2035.
  • adaptable Learning: The curriculum in higher education is becoming more adaptable and encouraging multidisciplinary research.
  • Multiple Entry and depart: With the proper certification, students can enter or depart courses at various levels.
  • Credit Transfer: Smooth credit transfers between institutions are possible with an Academic Bank of Credits.
  • Promotion of research: The National Research Foundation will support the culture of research.
  • Simplified Regulation: A single regulator administers minimal but effective regulations for higher education.
  • Colleges will have varying degrees of autonomy, and the affiliation system will gradually disappear over a 15-year period.
  • Technology integration is encouraged by the National Educational Technology Forum.
  • Inclusive Measures: Initiatives for underprivileged populations are pushed, as are monies for gender inclusion and special education zones.
  • Multilingual Approach: NEP encourages bilingualism in higher education and in classrooms.

With a focus on diversity, adaptability, and compatibility with India’s shifting demands, the NEP 2020 represents a paradigm leap.

Diverse Pathways to Learning: A Global Perspective

  • In light of this, a sizable influx of international students enticed by the appeal of Indian degrees is changing the face of education in India. The substantial financial assistance provided to international students by the Government of India is a strong reason supporting this trend.
  • Universities and educational institutions all around the country are addressing the particular requirements of cohorts of overseas students as a result of this internationalisation of education. Scholarships, tuition reductions, industrial exposure, and post-graduate programmes that have been carefully selected have all become essential components of this effort.
  • Furthermore, a new age of cooperation between Indian and foreign institutions has begun with the introduction of “joint degree” programmes. This mutual exchange of students and researchers not only demonstrates the high calibre of instruction but also enhances the academic environments on both sides.

The Value of Interdisciplinarity and Collaboration in Closing the Knowledge Gap

The value of teamwork and interdisciplinary research has become more apparent in the midst of this shift. Siloed thinking is insufficient to address complex issues like climate change, energy sustainability, and the demand on natural resources. Institutions are experiencing a metamorphosis, moving from an ecosystem where expertise from various domains converges to address complex problems to one where expertise from firmly established competence in specific areas. The foundation of this paradigm change is the cooperation of institutions, both domestic and foreign. Such partnerships encourage innovative environments by supporting not only comprehensive approaches to problem-solving but also the academic journeys of both students and professors.

A Global Footprint for Freedom and Independence in Education

The meaning of freedom and independence is considered in the context of education as the country observes Independence Day. This translates into universal access to high-quality opportunities and education, regardless of location. Indian educational institutions are increasingly moving abroad to open campuses, marking the start of a unique trajectory in the country’s educational environment. Notably, the IITs, known for their academic prowess and rigour, are driving this movement. These schools do more than just provide instruction; they also support foreign student cohorts, establish global academic communities, and build partnerships for joint degree programmes. The construction of offshore campuses, a frontier brimming with enormous potential and palpable enthusiasm, represents the apex of this endeavour.

IIT Madras Leads the Way as the World’s Footprint Forms

IIT Madras, a pioneer in the field of education, has taken the initiative and is leading the way by opening a campus in Zanzibar. With student classes set to start on October 24, the month of July saw the start of campus activities. IIT-M is prepared to lead students through extensive undergraduate and postgraduate programmes thanks to its long history of academic quality, modern pedagogical approaches, decades of research and innovation, and a faculty dedicated to open-minded mentorship. The challenge comes in not just upholding IIT’s trademark standards but also bringing local knowledge to school while embracing global viewpoints.

Balance between Excellence and Adaptation in Building a Globally Relevant Institution

An intricate balance must be established between maintaining quality and embracing regional and international influences as the offshore campus’s foundation takes shape. The institution’s growth trajectory should be consistent with its ability to uphold strict academic standards while enlarging its educational reach. Assuring the delivery of high-quality education, promoting an inclusive academic environment, and navigating the complexities of foreign educational environments are crucial concerns that demand careful attention. This endeavour is not without its hurdles.

Fostering Inclusivity: Meeting Expectations and Providing Equitable Access

The ability of the offshore campus to satisfy demands for increased access to top-notch education and individual freedom is essential to its success. In order to meet the different needs of its student body and respect the principles of individual freedom, the campus must serve as a shining example of equity. The guiding concept should focus on integrating equity and access into the institution’s fundamental structures, solving one of the historical issues IITs have had with gender representation.

Shaping the Future: A Path to Equity and Global Impact

This expansion’s potential to transcend conventional obstacles is a crucial aspect. Although there has been a slow progress, gender representation in engineering disciplines at IITs has historically been an issue. IITs’ internationalisation offers a rare chance to change the landscape. A more diverse and inclusive academic environment can be fostered through creating programmes, campuses, and institutions that prioritise access and equity. This openness has the potential to reshape global views and effect on an unprecedented scale, especially when combined with the convergence of multinational ideas and cooperative relationships.


As India marks its 77th Independence Day, the idea of educational independence assumes new importance. It represents unrestricted access to educational opportunities and life-changing encounters that enable people and foster group excellence. India is well-positioned to serve a wider, more diversified population as its educational system quickly adopts foreign cooperation, joint programmes, and offshore campuses. This period of transformation marks a time when India’s educational prowess will be felt around the world, fostering a generation of students who will be well-equipped to face the complex problems posed by our linked world.

India’s Constitutional Change: Colonialism to Inclusive Justice


The development of India’s constitutional democracy is evidence of a significant shift from colonial subjection to the overthrow of a long-standing social order. But this growth was anything but easy; it required constant work to hold onto the struggles won in the fight against institutional oppression. Visionary leaders of the country built the foundation for institutional democracy, founded on the values of liberty, equality, and fraternity, to take the place of the colonial governance paradigm. Adoption of the Indian Constitution, a document that signalled a new era of political power transfer and carried the potential of societal reform, was a crucial milestone in this transformation.


GS Paper 2 – Polity – Constitutional Development

Mains Question

Talk about the judiciary’s function in India in upholding the rule of law and ensuring access to justice. Draw attention to the difficulties with accountability, openness, and high-quality justice. How can new methods and technology improve effectiveness and legitimacy? (150 words)

The Challenges and Foundations of Democracy, and the Role of Courts

Those who questioned the sustainability of constitutional democracy in India’s absence of necessary preconditions greeted it with scepticism. Social equality, political literacy, and the creation of a strong institutional culture were requirements for maintaining democracy. However, the Constitution recognised the potential difficulties and gave democratic institutions the authority to deal with them, so directing the development of democracy in the nation.

Judiciary’s Vital Function

The judiciary is at the centre of India’s constitutional democracy, playing a crucial role in protecting individuals and vulnerable groups from societal injustices and capricious behaviour. Courts are more than just legal translators; they also act as democratic participation platforms and accelerators for altering societal injustices. In particular, the Supreme Court promotes a continuing constitutional conversation between citizens and institutions by acting as both a constitutional court and the highest court of appeal.

Getting Rid of Obstacles to Justice

Issues with Accessibility

The difficulty in getting access to justice is a major problem for the judicial system. Accessibility can be hampered, and democratic space can be reduced, by physical courthouses and strict procedural restrictions. Accepting technology becomes essential for removing these obstacles and ensuring that justice is accessible to all. The revolutionary potential of technology is demonstrated by initiatives like websites for people with impairments and court documents that can be viewed on a screen.

Public Awareness and Transparency

A significant segment of the populace is cut off from the courts due to the opaque nature of the judicial system. Live-streaming court proceedings, translating decisions into many languages, and transcribing oral arguments are just a few examples of initiatives that increase transparency and foster understanding of the justice delivery system. Video conferencing furthers access democratisation by overcoming the gap brought up by symbolic opacity.

Truthful and legitimate justice

Beyond openness, providing high-quality justice is crucial to boosting public trust and the credibility of the legal system. Judicial behaviour inside and outside of the courtroom is of utmost importance in the age of social media monitoring. In order to stop inherent human biases from influencing judicial decision-making, they must be addressed. An empathic and humane view of the law improves accessibility and guarantees that justice is being done fairly.

The Judiciary’s Future: Citizen Participation

Citizens’ Participation and Accountability

Participation by citizens is closely linked to transparency and accountability within constitutional institutions. It is our responsibility as different citizens of a pluralistic country to participate in democratic processes, ask questions about how institutions work, and demand accountability and openness from the judiciary. The effectiveness of these institutions depends on their capacity to carry out their statutory obligations.

Efficiency, Creativity, and Flexibility

Effective judicial operation depends on efficiency. The Supreme Court has adopted the digital environment and set an example for other courts to follow by using technology to manage caseloads, create paperless courts, and improve judicial infrastructure. To introduce cutting-edge methods to judicial proceedings, collaboration with academic institutions and start-ups is essential. The court’s ability to lead while protecting the rule of law depends on its ability to adapt to a constantly globalising world.


  • The Indian judiciary’s sustained relevance and efficiency as it approaches its 75th anniversary of independence depend on its unwavering adherence to its constitutional conscience. The individual and group efforts of judges as well as the institution as a whole must reflect this dedication. The judiciary’s contribution to determining India’s future will be defined by its commitment to justice, effectiveness, adaptation, and transparency. The development of constitutional democracy is a process that calls for ongoing attention and constructive participation to make sure that the ideas of liberty, equality, and fraternity continue to serve as the foundation for national governance.
  • The history of India’s constitutional democracy shows how colonial control gave way to a more inclusive social structure. Despite its many obstacles, this journey has resulted in the construction of a strong democratic foundation. With its emphasis on ensuring access to justice and safeguarding democratic norms, the judiciary’s role remains crucial to this evolution. The judiciary may overcome obstacles and increase its credibility by embracing technology, improving transparency, and providing high-quality justice. As citizens, it is our duty to actively participate in and be held accountable for our actions in order to maintain the usefulness and effectiveness of constitutional institutions. The cornerstone of India’s prosperity in the future will be a flexible, effective, and transparent judiciary that preserves the constitutional conscience and defends the highly valued principles of liberty, equality, and brotherhood.

October 2023