- One Person, One Vote, One Value
- Non-Communicable Diseases and Millets
Political equality within liberal democracies goes beyond providing equal opportunities for participation in the political decision-making process; it also involves ensuring that each vote holds the same value as those of other community members.
- Indian Constitution
- Statutory Bodies
Along with addressing quantitative dilution of vote value, the next Delimitation Commission needs to address qualitative dilution so that minorities are represented more adequately. Analyse. (15 Marks, 250 Words).
Background: Right to Vote in India:
- The privilege of voting in India constitutes a fundamental political entitlement granted to all eligible Indian citizens by the Indian Constitution. This right is delineated by various articles and statutes, including:
- Article 326: This constitutional provision establishes the concept of universal adult suffrage, asserting that “the elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assembly of every State shall be on the basis of adult suffrage.”
- Representation of the People Act, 1950: This legislation outlines the procedures for the preparation and revision of electoral rolls, the conduct of elections, and the determination of voter qualifications.
- Representation of the People Act, 1951: This statute addresses matters related to the conduct of elections, disqualifications for membership of Parliament and State Legislatures, and other pertinent aspects.
- The right to vote in India is a fundamental constitutional guarantee primarily articulated in Article 326 of the Indian Constitution.
- This article upholds the principle of universal adult suffrage, ensuring that every Indian citizen aged 18 or older possesses the right to participate in elections for the House of the People (Lok Sabha) and Legislative Assemblies of States (Vidhan Sabha).
- The voting age was lowered from 21 to 18 in 1988 through the 61st Amendment Act, signifying a noteworthy democratic reform. The Election Commission of India is tasked with overseeing elections and ensuring the equitable and free exercise of this right, typically carried out through secret ballots.
- This right empowers citizens to actively participate in the democratic process, allowing them to choose their representatives at various levels of government, and stands as a fundamental tenet of India’s commitment to representative democracy.
Qualitative and Quantitative Dilution of the Right to Vote:
- Legal expert Pamela S. Karlan emphasizes that the right to vote can be compromised both quantitatively and qualitatively through the manipulation of electoral boundaries.
- Quantitative dilution occurs when votes carry unequal weight due to significant population variations among constituencies.
- On the other hand, qualitative dilution arises when gerrymandering, the strategic redrawal of boundaries to favor a specific candidate or party, diminishes a voter’s likelihood of electing a representative of their choice.
- Consequently, the delineation of constituencies plays a pivotal role in either reinforcing or undermining the foundations of democracy.
Safeguards in the Indian Constitution:
- In order to prevent these dilutions, the framers of our Constitution envisioned specific safeguards to uphold equal political rights for every citizen.
- Articles 81 and 170 of the Constitution stipulate that, to the extent feasible, the population ratio for Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assembly constituencies should be identical.
- Article 327 grants Parliament the authority to legislate on constituency delimitation, and such laws are not subject to legal challenge. In accordance with this, the government establishes an independent delimitation commission led by a retired Supreme Court judge to prevent qualitative dilution.
- Articles 330 and 332 ensure the reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) in Parliament and State Legislative Assemblies, a consideration that must be taken into account during the delimitation process.
- The periodic delimitation of constituencies, based on the decennial Census, is crucial to maintaining the aspired equality in the value of votes to the greatest extent possible.
The government has established four delimitation commissions to date: in 1952, 1962, 1972, and 2002.
- Delimitation refers to the process of establishing limits or boundaries for territorial constituencies within a country or a province with a legislative body.
- The delimitation for Lok Sabha (LS) and Legislative Assembly (LA) differs from that of local bodies.
- The Delimitation Commission Act was passed in 1952.
- The Delimitation Commission is appointed by the President of India and collaborates with the Election Commission of India (ECI).
- The first delimitation exercise was conducted by the President (with assistance from the Election Commission) in 1950-51.
- The objectives of delimitation include ensuring equal representation for segments of the population, fair division of geographical areas to prevent electoral advantages for any political party, and adherence to the principle of “One Vote One Value.”
- Article 82 empowers Parliament to enact a Delimitation Act after every Census, while Article 170 mandates states to be divided into territorial constituencies as per the Delimitation Act after each Census.
|The initial delimitation order in 1956 identified 86 constituencies as two-member constituencies, a designation that was eliminated by the Two Member Constituencies (Abolition) Act, 1961.
|The second delimitation order in 1967 augmented the number of Lok Sabha seats from 494 to 522 and State Assembly seats from 3,102 to 3,563.
|The third delimitation order in 1976 raised the count of Lok Sabha and State Assembly constituencies to 543 and 3,997, respectively. In response to concerns about potential representation imbalances, the 42nd Amendment Act in 1976 froze the population figure from the 1971 Census for delimitation until after the 2001 Census.
|The Delimitation Act of 2002 did not grant the Delimitation Commission the authority to increase the number of seats. Instead, it stipulated that boundaries within existing constituencies should be readjusted.
The Commission allowed up to a 10% variation in the parity principle; however, approximately 17 parliamentary constituencies and numerous Assembly constituencies exceeded this limit, enabling each representative to represent a larger population.
Nevertheless, the fourth Delimitation Commission successfully reassigned reserved constituencies, leading to an increase in the number of seats for Scheduled Castes (SCs) from 79 to 84 and Scheduled Tribes (STs) from 41 to 47 based on population growth. The moratorium on further seat increases was extended until the first Census after 2026.
Dilution of the Value of Vote:
- Vote value dilution is evident in the significant population growth observed in Rajasthan, Haryana, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, and Gujarat, surpassing 125% between 1971 and 2011. In contrast, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Goa, and Odisha experienced a population increase of less than 100%, attributed to stringent population control measures.
- This disparity underscores a substantial variation in the voting power of individuals among states. For instance, in Uttar Pradesh, an average Member of Parliament (MP) represents approximately 2.53 million people, whereas in Tamil Nadu, an MP represents an average of around 1.84 million people, indicating a quantitative dilution.
- The qualitative dilution of vote value parity can serve as a means to marginalize or render insignificant the votes of minority groups. This can manifest in three ways.
- Firstly, “cracking” involves dividing areas predominantly inhabited by minorities into different constituencies.
- Secondly, “stacking” occurs when the minority population is subsumed within constituencies where others constitute the majority.
- Lastly, “packing” involves concentrating minorities within a few constituencies, thereby diminishing their influence in other areas.
- The issue of qualitative dilution of vote value was brought to light in both the National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution and the Sachar Committee Report.
- In a significant number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes (SCs) by the Delimitation Commission (1972–76), the Muslim population exceeded 50% and was also higher than the SC population.
- Additionally, constituencies with a substantial SC population and a lower Muslim population were reclassified as unreserved.
- This has had a significant impact on the representation of Muslims in Parliament. Currently, the proportion of Muslim Members of Parliament stands at only around 4.42%, whereas the Muslim population is 14.2%.
Further delay in delimitation is untenable, as it would exacerbate the disparity in the ratio of population to representation. Simultaneously, it is crucial to safeguard the interests of the southern States, as their representation in Parliament may diminish when additional seats are allocated to states experiencing higher population growth. The upcoming Delimitation Commission must not only tackle the quantitative dilution of vote value but also address qualitative dilution to ensure more equitable representation for minorities.
India is currently undergoing an epidemiological transition marked by a surge in non-communicable diseases (NCDs), commonly known as “lifestyle” diseases. Concurrently, there exists a “dual disease burden” due to the prevalent high prevalence of communicable diseases.
- Agricultural Resources
- Food Security
- Important International Institutions
To minimise the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in India, regular consumption of millets and pseudocereals is highly desirable. Comment. Also highlight the government’s initiatives in this regard. (15 Marks, 250 Words).
Background: Non-Communicable Diseases in India
- Non-Communicable Diseases, also recognized as chronic diseases, typically have prolonged durations and result from a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental, and behavioral factors.
- The primary categories of NCDs encompass cardiovascular diseases (such as heart attacks and strokes), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma), and diabetes.
A recent collaborative study conducted by the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation in partnership with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare sheds light on the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in India.
- This study marks the first comprehensive epidemiological research paper encompassing participants from all 31 states and Union Territories.
- By incorporating data from diverse regions, the research offers valuable insights into the prevalence and impact of NCDs, particularly diabetes, across the nation.
- Goa, Puducherry, and Kerala exhibit the highest prevalence of diabetes, ranging between 25-26.4%.
- India is now home to 101 million individuals diagnosed with diabetes.
- The study identifies 136 million people with prediabetes.
- Hypertension affects 315 million individuals.
- Generally obese individuals number 254 million, while 351 million have abdominal obesity.
- Generalized obesity is prevalent in 28.6% of the population, and abdominal obesity affects 39.5% of Indians, with a notably high rate of 50% in females.
- Hypercholesterolemia, characterized by fat accumulation in arteries, is observed in 213 million individuals, posing an increased risk of heart attacks and strokes.
- 24% of Indians suffer from hypercholesterolemia.
- Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, often referred to as “bad cholesterol,” are present in 185 million individuals. LDL cholesterol can contribute to arterial plaque buildup, leading to various health risks.
- Cholesterol circulates through the blood on proteins called “lipoproteins.”
Factors that have led to an Increase in Non-communicable Diseases:
Consumption of Processed or Unhealthy Diet:
Over the last three decades, the increased consumption of processed or unhealthy diets, defined as the Nutrition transition, has resulted in reduced intake of coarse cereals, pulses, fruits, and vegetables, and an increased consumption of meat products and salt. This has led to a 6% rise in energy derived from fats and a 7% decrease in energy derived from carbohydrates.
Reduced Physical Activity:
The Nutrition transition, coupled with reduced physical activity due to rapid urbanization, has contributed to a rise in obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, subclinical inflammation, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease in Indians.
Prevalence of Malnutrition:
Additionally, the increased prevalence of malnutrition is characterized by an uptick in the intake of Western-style diets, decreased physical activity, and high consumption of tobacco and alcohol among fathers and mothers.
- Millets, traditional grains consumed in the Indian subcontinent for over 5000 years, are hardy, rain-fed crops with low water and fertility requirements compared to other cereals.
- They encompass sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet, and other minor millets collectively known as Nutri cereals.
Production of Millets:
- Millets are associated with climate resilience, and there is a pressing need to enhance their productivity through research and development, crop care, and a robust supply chain.
- Globally, millets are predominantly grown in the Asian region, with India, Nigeria, and China being the largest producers, accounting for over 55% of global production. In recent years, millet production has surged in Africa.
- In India, pearl millet ranks as the fourth-most widely cultivated food crop after rice, wheat, and maize, making millets available throughout the country.
Benefits of Millets:
- Millets are highly nutritious, non-glutinous, and non-acid-forming foods with nutraceutical and health-promoting properties, especially high fiber content.
- Millets serve as a prebiotic, hydrating the colon, aiding in cholesterol reduction, and providing essential nutrients.
- The remarkable benefits of incorporating millets or Nutri cereals into the regular diet contribute to addressing health challenges such as obesity, diabetes, and lifestyle issues, owing to their low glycemic index, high dietary fiber, and antioxidants.
- Nutri cereals boast high nutrient content, including protein, essential fatty acids, dietary fiber, B-Vitamins, and minerals such as calcium, iron, zinc, potassium, and magnesium.
- They offer nutritional security, particularly for children and women, and are crucial for climate change measures in drylands, benefiting smallholder and marginal farmers.
- Nutri cereals surpass major cereals in terms of slow digestible carbohydrates, non-allergenic proteins, dietary fiber, and micronutrients, containing 55–75% starch, 7–15% protein, 2–5% lipid, 2–4% minerals, and 7–15% dietary fiber.
- The nutritional and health benefits of millets and pseudocereals are well-documented, recommended to minimize the intensity and management of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity.
- In the current sedentary lifestyle scenario, the regular consumption of millets and pseudocereals is highly recommended for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases and to lead a healthy life.
Steps Taken by the Government:
- In response to the growing challenge of diet-related diseases, the Government of India has embraced the trend of consuming functional foods as a preventive measure.
- Epidemiological studies show that diets rich in plant foods, including whole grains, protect against NCDs such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases, due to the protective effects of phytonutrients.
- The Department of Health & Family Welfare, under the National Programme for Prevention and Control of non-communicable diseases (NP-NCD), spearheads initiatives to increase public awareness and promote a healthy lifestyle.
- Furthermore, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) actively promotes healthy eating.
- To enhance awareness and promote the production and consumption of millets, the millets were rebranded as “Nutri Cereals,” and the year 2018 was designated as the National Year of Millets.
- Subsequently, the United Nations General Assembly, on its 75th session, declared 2023 as the International Year of Millets. This designation provides an opportunity to increase global production, enhance processing efficiency, promote crop rotation, and position millets as a major component of the global food basket.
Hence, the significant factors contributing to the dual-disease burden in India are primarily driven by unhealthy dietary habits affecting all age groups. The mounting epidemic of diet-related non-communicable diseases (DR-NCDs), coupled with widespread undernutrition, imposes a considerable socioeconomic burden. Just as our ancestors wisely recognized the benefits of Nutri Cereals, the present generation too needs to adopt them as a part of the regular diet intake considering all the benefits they have.