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Editorials/Opinions Analysis For UPSC 29 March 2023

Editorials/Opinions Analysis For UPSC 29 March 2023


  1. Developing a More Gender Inclusive Workplace
  2. Groundwater Crisis: four more states are water-stressed

Developing a More Gender Inclusive Workplace


According to a Catalyst study, women in India are less likely to be given credit for their work and are more likely to have their contributions ignored or dismissed.Men taking credit for women’s ideas or work at work is referred to as “bropropriation” in a recent Time magazine article.


GS Paper-1: Women Empowerment and related Issues.

GS Paper-2: Education and Skill Development

Mains Question

What exactly do you mean by “bropropriation”? Provide some solutions to the bropropriation problem. (150 Words)

Key Points

  • The Economic Survey (2022-23) acknowledged that the true nature of women’s work in India may not have been sufficiently captured by official statistics.
    • This deficiency has an impact on the policies we create to increase women’s economic participation as well as how we view women’s economic contributions.

What is the bropropriation problem?

  • The act of men taking credit for women’s ideas or work in the workplace is known as “bropropriation,” and it is a widespread phenomenon in many nations, including India.
    • Many senior female executives concur that they frequently encounter bropropriation.
  • Companies can take a number of actions to encourage fairness, equality, and collaboration in the workplace in order to stop bropropriation at senior levels.Companies putting policies into place must consider minimising this aspect for better inclusivity as gender diversity and inclusion at work receive more attention.

What is essential?

  • Raising awareness of the problem among staff members: Training sessions or workshops on the subject should be provided so that staff members can recognise and comprehend the behaviours that lead to bropropriation.
  • Promote an inclusive and collaborative culture: Senior leaders of organisations can set an example for these behaviours by blatantly thanking and acknowledging the contributions of others.
    • This can be done by receiving formal rewards or public acclaim.
    • Senior leaders can inspire others to act inclusively and collaboratively by setting an example for them.
  • Encourage gender diversity in the executive suite: o Having more women in senior leadership roles can aid in lowering the risk of bropropriation.
    • It is more likely that women in positions of power will be treated equally and that their contributions will be valued.
  • Create clear channels for communication: o A culture that values discussion and feedback can encourage open and honest communication among coworkers.
  • Regular team meetings, performance evaluations, and one-on-one conversations can all help with this.
  • Put accountability measures in place: o You can do this by establishing a formal grievance procedure or by using anonymous reporting systems.
    • Employees should develop the self-assurance to report instances of appropriation without worrying about facing consequences.
    • Businesses should also be ready to act quickly when such incidents are reported to ensure that the behaviour is curtailed and that the impacted employee is given the proper recognition.

The Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS)

  • The Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) was first released in April 2017 by the National Statistical Office (NSO).
    • Goal: o To estimate the key employment and unemployment indicators in the ‘Current Weekly Status’ for urban areas only in the short time period of three months (i.e., Worker Population Ratio, Labor Force Participation Rate, and Unemployment Rate). (CWS).
      • To annually estimate employment and unemployment indicators in both rural and urban areas using “Usual Status” (ps+ss) and CWS.
    • Terminology:
      • Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR): The LFPR is the proportion of the population that is employed, actively looking for work, or otherwise available for employment.
      • Unemployment Rate (UR): The UR is the proportion of unemployed people to the total labour force.
      • Worker Population Ratio (WPR): The WPR is the proportion of the population that is employed.
      • Activity Status- Usual Status: A person’s activity status is assessed in light of the pursuits they made during the designated reference period.
  • It is referred to as the person’s usual activity status when the activity status is established using the reference period of the last 365 days preceding the survey date.
    • Activity Status- Current Weekly Status (CWS): The person’s current weekly status (CWS) is based on the activity status determined over the reference period of the last seven days prior to the date of the survey.
  • Principal activity status: A person’s typical principal activity status was defined as the one on which they spent a significant amount of time (major time criterion) during the 365 days prior to the survey date.
    • Subsidiary economic activity status: The activity status in which a person performs some economic activity for 30 days or more during the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of the survey, in addition to his or her usual principal status, was considered the person’s subsidiary economic status.

The way forward

  • The best course of action is to broaden the definition of work, which will increase the number of women workers — almost the entire adult female population of India — and lessen the stigma associated with India’s low female labour participation rates.
  • By valorizing women’s diverse activities, we may treat their vulnerabilities as strengths and fail to acknowledge the lack of access to income-generating activities for women.
  • It also aligns with feminist advocacy that has sought recognition of women’s unpaid work.


To achieve inclusive economic growth and provide opportunities for decent working conditions for all employees in accordance with Sustainable Development Goals 8, employers must value and respect the contributions of all employees, regardless of gender.

Groundwater Crisis: four more states are water-stressed


  • In the context of a growing crisis over groundwater extraction, primarily for irrigation, four more states, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, and Andhra Pradesh, have recently been identified as being water-stressed, joining the seven already on a Central list (Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh).
    • As a result, the management of groundwater resources has gained importance in the nation.


GS paper-2: Government Policies, Governance and related issues.

GS paper-3: Water Resources and its conservation.

Mains Question

What role does groundwater play in India? Also, make some recommendations for ways to strengthen groundwater governance. (250 Words)

Key Points:

  • According to a World Bank report, India uses the most groundwater worldwide.
  • There is no overarching law governing the use of groundwater, and each State has its own laws governing its extraction that are applied haphazardly.
  • With nearly 18% of the world’s population, India takes up 2.4% of the planet’s total land area and uses 4% of its water supplies.
  • Groundwater is crucial to India’s agriculture and drinking water security in rural and urban areas, providing nearly 80% of the nation’s drinking water and two-thirds of its irrigation needs. Due to widespread use of groundwater for agricultural production in an environment of economic growth, India has become the largest groundwater extractor in the world.

Initiatives for Better Ground Water Governance:

  • The federal government is working with the states and union territories to manage groundwater sustainably.
    • During this process, a number of significant initiatives have been noted, including  A reduction in groundwater extraction to below 70%.
  • Extending the groundwater observation well network.
  • Setting up digital water level recorders for ongoing observation.
  • routine groundwater quality inspections.
  • Data dissemination and aquifer mapping.
  • Improving industry regulation of groundwater extraction.
  • Supporting routine groundwater resource assessments and participatory groundwater management.
  • Establishment of the Jal Shakti Ministry (by combining the former Ministries of Drinking Water and Sanitation, River Development, and Ganga Rejuvenation), which will help to advance the management of water resources with a focus on demand and supply.
  • After recognising the value of community involvement, the Jal Shakti Abhiyan was started to turn Jan Shakti into Jal Shakti through the creation of assets, rainwater harvesting (the “Catch the Rain” campaign), and a broad awareness campaign.
  • The Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABY) and the National Project on Aquifer Management are two initiatives that have been taken for the efficient management and regulation of groundwater. (NAQUIM).
  • Aquifers that contain water are to be mapped as part of NAQUIM in order to collect accurate information and allow for well-informed decision-making.
  • Out of the nearly 25 lakh square kilometres that can be mapped, about 24 lakh square kilometres of the country have been mapped. By March 2023, the remaining area should be mapped.
  • Rapid and precise aquifer mapping has been achieved by combining traditional exploratory techniques with a heliborne-based survey (state-of-the-art technology).
  • Increasing the Number of Monitoring Stations: In India, there are approximately 65,025 monitoring stations, 7,885 of which are automated.
  • The number of automated stations will increase to over 35,000, with a focus on identifying high groundwater-extracting industrial and urban clusters and groundwater stressed regions. o Dynamic groundwater assessments will now be performed annually, and a groundwater estimation committee has been formed to revise the assessment methodology.
    • A software called the “India-Groundwater Resource Estimation System (IN-GRES)” has also been developed.

The Atal BhuJal Yojana

  • Since April 2020, the Jal Shakti ministry has been implementing it as a central sector programme in 8,220 water-stressed village Panchayats in 80 districts throughout Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh.
    • More than 3% of the “assessment areas” in each of these states fall into the category of over-exploited resources.
  • The objective of ABY is to demonstrate community-led sustainable groundwater management and ensure the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources.The Atal Bhujal Yojana is expected to be implemented in the seven states over a five-year period (2020–25) with an outlay of 6,000 crore, of which 3,000 crore will come from the World Bank.

Ways to Move Forward:

  • India’s poor land use policies have caused the loss of smaller wetlands and the degradation of the majority of wetlands, which has led to extremely low groundwater levels.
    • Local governments treat the majority of wetlands as wasteland and have encroached upon them for other land-use purposes, which needs to stop right away.
  • Communities will need the assistance of various governmental and non-governmental organisations to manage their groundwater resources more effectively.
  • In the context of climate change, efforts must be made to find solutions that are crucial for sustainable development as uncertainties in relation to groundwater resources will grow.
  • According to a draught national water policy, recycling should take precedence over using freshwater for industrial purposes and water-intensive crops should be abandoned.
  • Water shouldn’t be viewed as a free, private resource; instead, its costs should be calculated and shared fairly.
  • Though the politics of water are still divisive in India, the climate crisis should spur agreement on the need to discourage wasteful use of this priceless resource.


  • The government’s efforts to improve the overall groundwater situation in India show a commitment to cooperative federalism in the management of this priceless resource.India, which has one of the fastest-rising economies, will require sufficient groundwater resources to handle anthropogenic pressures.
  • As part of the Jal Jeevan Mission, it’s critical to guarantee source sustainability in order to supply clean drinking water to every rural household by 2024.

February 2024