Editorials/Opinions Analysis For UPSC 30 May 2023
- India’s First Polarimetry Mission: XPoSat
- Policy Interventions to Restore Women’s Dignity
The X-Ray Polarimeter Satellite (XPoSat), due for launch later this year, is being built by the Indian Space scientific Organisation in partnership with the Raman Research agency (RRI), Bengaluru, an independent scientific agency.
GS Paper-3: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life
In what ways has India’s X-Ray Polarimeter Satellite (XPoSat) project contributed to the development of astrophysics? Describe the idea of polarimetry and how it helps us comprehend bright astronomical X-ray sources better. (150 words)
- The ISRO states that “XPoSat will study various dynamics of bright astronomical X-ray sources in extreme conditions.”
- It has been hailed as the world’s second polarimetry mission and the first in India. Its goal is to learn more about the dynamics of bright astronomical X-ray sources in difficult circumstances.The NASA Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE), which was launched in 2021, is the other such important mission.
Understanding the X-Rays in Space
- Understanding X-Rays in Space According to NASA, X-rays have substantially higher energies and shorter wavelengths, ranging from 0.03 to 3 nanometers, which makes some of them little larger than a single atom of several elements.
- The wavelength of radiation that an object emits depends on its physical temperature. The peak emission wavelength gets shorter as an object gets hotter.X-rays are produced by objects with temperatures in the millions of degrees Celsius, such as black holes, pulsars, and relics of galactic supernovae.
The Importance of Polarimetry
- The Importance of Polarimetry X-rays are made up of travelling electric and magnetic waves, much like all other types of light. These waves’ peaks and dips typically go in arbitrary directions.
- According to a NASA video on IXPE, polarised light is better ordered because it has two different types of waves that vibrate in the same direction.
- It further states that while near water, fishermen wear polarised lenses to lessen glare from the sun.
- According to Britannica, the science of polarimetry examines the measurement of the rotational angle of a plane of polarised light, or a beam of light in which the vibrations of electromagnetic waves are contained within a single plane. This phenomenon occurs when light passes through certain transparent materials.
ISRO’s XPoSat Initiative
- According to the ISRO website, space-based observatories are unable to provide information about the precise nature of the emissions from various astronomical sources, including black holes, neutron stars, active galactic nuclei, pulsar wind nebulae, etc.
- The emission mechanism from these sources originates from complex physical processes and is difficult to understand. As a result, more modern equipment is needed to measure particular qualities.
- Two research payloads will be carried by the XPoSat spacecraft in a low Earth orbit. The polarimetry parameters (degree and angle of polarisation) will be measured by the primary payload, POLIX (Polarimeter Instrument in X-rays).
- RRI is working with ISRO’s U R Rao Satellite Centre (URSC) in Bengaluru to create the payload.
- POLIX is anticipated to observe over 40 brilliant astronomical objects of various types over the course of the XPoSat mission’s anticipated lifespan of around 5 years.
- This is the first polarimetry-focused payload in the medium X-ray energy band.
- Spectroscopic data (on how light is absorbed and emitted by objects) will be provided by the XSPECT (X-ray Spectroscopy and Timing) payload. It would keep an eye on a variety of sources, including neutron stars with low magnetic fields, black hole binaries, and X-ray pulsars.
- India’s attempt to launch the X-Ray Polarimeter Satellite (XPoSat) is an important turning point in the nation’s ambitions to conduct space research.
- By utilising polarimetry techniques, XPoSat will provide invaluable insights into the nature and behaviour of these celestial objects, including black holes, neutron stars, and pulsars. o The mission aims to study the dynamics of bright astronomical X-ray sources in extreme conditions.
- POLIX and XSPECT, the scientific payloads on board, will allow precise measurements of polarimetry parameters and spectroscopic data.
- As XPoSat gets ready to launch, it promises to deepen our understanding of the cosmos and make significant contributions to the field of astrophysics.
The Centre wants to work with numerous ministries and States to develop various programmes for achieving gender parity and restoring women’s dignity.
GS PAper-1: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
Explain the government’s major policy actions to restore women’s dignity. Discuss how these efforts seek gender equity and empower Indian women. (250 words)
- The Indian government is getting ready to undertake a major initiative to advance gender equality and restore the dignity of women.Aiming to address the issue of women’s empowerment through policy interventions, gender sensitization, and changes to the criminal justice system, this ambitious plan was developed in cooperation with the Niti Aayog, numerous ministries, and experts.
- The plan includes a variety of initiatives that will be carried out by several ministries and governments.At the approaching meeting of the 8th Governing Council of Niti Aayog, which will be attended by the Prime Minister, Chief Ministers, and Lt Governors of Union Territories, these measures will be discussed.
One Nation- One Helpline
- The establishment of “One Nation, One Helpline” by unifying all helplines for women under a single emergency response number, “112,” is one of the initiative’s key elements.
- This centralised helpline will be created in partnership by the Ministries of Women and Child Development and Home Affairs. It will also be connected to “One Stop Centres” and “District Child Protection Units,” which provide comprehensive support and solutions for those affected by violence.
- An immediate and effective response to women in need will be provided by this integrated system.
Preventing Child Marriages
- According to UNICEF, India now has the highest percentage of child brides worldwide.
- The social welfare division of the Union Ministry of Social Justice will coordinate state and union territory efforts to increase the number of child marriage prohibition officers in order to address this urgent issue.
- These officers will be crucial in preventing child marriages and defending the rights of young girls.
- The government seeks to safeguard the welfare of vulnerable children by tightening the enforcement of current rules.
- The Ministry of Education will be tasked with creating a gender-sensitive curriculum in recognition of the significance of education in forming attitudes and beliefs.
- The emphasis of this curriculum will be on preserving women’s rights and dignity.
- To promote critical thinking and gender sensitization among students, the Niti Aayog recommends introducing case studies and problem-solving activities into school curricula.
- To raise awareness and instruct pupils on proper behaviour, short films, animated videos, and posters will also be used.
- Teachers will also receive training on how to instill values and promote good behavioural habits in kids.
Female Empowerment Hubs
- The establishment of “hubs for the empowerment of women” at the state, union territory, and district levels is something the administration aims to do. Additionally, women’s hostels will be created in industrial and economic zones to provide safe and convenient housing for working women.
- These hubs will function as centres to support and empower women by providing a variety of resources and possibilities.
- Another area of concentration will be the promotion of women’s self-help groups (SHGs) as brands and unicorns.The goal of this multifaceted strategy is to establish a supportive environment for the economic and social empowerment of women.
Engagement of the Private Sector
- The government anticipates assistance from businesses and other organisations in advancing gender equality, acknowledging the significance of this sector’s participation.
- The government intends to rank the top 500 companies based on the Gender Equality Index and mandate that they disclose whether they adhere to the Maternity Benefit Act, the Sexual Harassment of Women (Prevention, Prohibition, and Redressal) at Workplace Act, 2013, and the Code on Industrial Relations.
- The government wants to make the workplace more welcoming and secure for women by promoting responsibility and openness.
- In order to promote financial responsibility and advance women’s empowerment at the local level, the Ministry of Finance will be in charge of monitoring and recognising the best-performing women SHGs in each district.By collaborating with particular businesses, MSMEs, and female SHGs, the Ministry of Industries and Commerce will coordinate efforts to encourage and promote women’s entrepreneurship.
Increasing the Number of Women in Important Positions
- The administration is aware of the need to raise the proportion of women in many fields. By diversifying traditionally male-dominated fields, the government hopes to provide more opportunities for women to excel and contribute to society.
- Special recruitment drives will be held to encourage women to pursue careers as forest guards, drivers, bus conductors, tourist police, and guides.Additionally, the plan calls for dedicating neighbourhood food streets to women SHGs in order to support their financial independence and spirit of entrepreneurship.
using an interoperable criminal justice system to monitor
- The government intends to put in place an inter-operable criminal justice system (ICJS) to ensure effective monitoring of crimes against women.
- The Ministry of Home Affairs will be in charge of overseeing this aspect’s implementation, ensuring effective collaboration and sharing of crucial information for speedy investigation and the administration of justice.
- This system, developed as part of the Supreme Court’s e-committee, will enable seamless transfer of data and information among courts, police, jails, and forensic laboratories.
- Policy measures to restore women’s dignity are part of the government’s holistic agenda for gender parity and empowering women in India.
- By fostering gender sensitivity, promoting women’s participation, and ensuring accountability, the government seeks to create an equitable and inclusive society.
- The plan addresses emergency helplines, child marriage prevention, education, economic empowerment, and effective criminal justice systems.To restore women’s dignity and ensure their legitimate role in society, this effort must be implemented, committed to, and monitored effectively.