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Higher Education and Its Biases


The Indian educational system is plagued by antiquated procedures, rules, and academic inertia.


GS Paper-2: Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Education, and Human Resources

Mains Question

Recently, the Indian government proposed allowing foreign universities to establish campuses there. What are some of the possible advantages and disadvantages of this proposal, and what potential effects might it have on the domestic education market? (250 Words).


  • The National Education Policy (NEP) is a welcome effort to incorporate learning into what the educational system should provide.
  • But the government’s plan to permit foreign universities to open offices in India ignores the problem of domestic organisations that could be turned into universities.
  • Indian regulators will have almost no control over foreign universities, but bureaucracy still stifles local institutions.
  • While Indian institutions lack the same freedom to set their own admission standards and fees, foreign institutions are permitted to do so.
  • Foreign institutions are not subject to UGC regulations governing the minimum requirements and methods for awarding degrees or the concepts put forth by NEP 2020.

The Indian educational system currently faces the following challenges:

  • Limited access to education: Despite government efforts to increase access to education, many children in India still lack access to high-quality education. Children who come from underprivileged backgrounds and live in remote areas are especially affected by this.
  • Poor educational quality: Many schools lack the necessary resources, qualified instructors, and instructional materials, which has an impact on the instruction given.
  • Outdated curricula: Many schools use outdated curricula that are out of step with the shifting demands of the labour market. This has an impact on students’ capacity to acquire the abilities and information required to succeed in the workforce.
  • Inadequate teacher preparation: Many Indian educators lack the necessary skills to deliver effective lessons. This has an impact on the standard of education given to students.
  • Lack of funding: The government has made an effort to increase funding for education, but there is still a funding gap in the industry. This has impacted the standard of the available infrastructure, educational resources, and teacher preparation.

What potential advantages and disadvantages could there be if foreign universities were permitted to establish bases in India?

  • Potential advantages:
    • Greater access to international education: Students would have easier access to international education with the establishment of foreign universities in India.
  • This might give Indian students access to higher-quality instruction and innovative teaching techniques and technologies.
    • An improvement in educational quality: The competition from foreign universities may push domestic universities to raise the standard of instruction they provide.
  • This might eventually result in an overall rise in India’s educational standards.
    • Economic boost: The opening of foreign universities may result in an increase in the number of foreign students visiting India.
  • Through increased spending on lodging, food, and other goods and services, this would boost the Indian economy.
  • Potential negatives:
    • Financial burden: Since the Indian government would have to provide infrastructure, land, and other facilities to these universities, the establishment of foreign universities could result in a financial burden.
  • This might take money away from the expansion of the domestic education industry.
    • Talent Drain: Due to the higher salaries and better facilities offered by foreign universities, the establishment of foreign universities in India may result in a loss of talented faculty and students from domestic universities.
    • Cultural impact: There is a chance that the establishment of foreign universities will result in a homogenization of the educational system because foreign universities are more likely to teach topics that are culturally relevant to India than those that are popular internationally.

Key Features of NEP

  • The NEP 2020 emphasises a multidisciplinary approach to education, which means students can select courses across various disciplines based on their interests and talents. Holistic and multidisciplinary education.
    • A holistic approach, which includes physical education, art, and vocational education, is also promoted by the policy.
    • This strategy differs from earlier regulations that were primarily concerned with academic education.
  • Early childhood care and education: The NEP 2020 aims to give every child access to high-quality ECCE while also recognising the significance of ECCE.
    • This emphasis on ECCE marks a significant change from earlier policies that did not give it as much attention.
  • Curriculum and assessment flexibility: The NEP 2020 supports curriculum and assessment flexibility, letting students select classes based on their interests.
    • It also promotes the transition from memorization to conceptual understanding, in contrast to previous policies that placed a strong emphasis on memorization and exams.
  • Technology in education: The NEP 2020 aims to encourage the use of digital technology for teaching and learning and acknowledges the significance of technology in education.
    • This strategy differs from earlier regulations that did not give as much weight to technology in education.
  • Teacher education and training: The NEP 2020 places a strong emphasis on the importance of high-quality teacher education and training, including ongoing professional development.
    • This emphasis on teacher training represents a change from earlier policies that did not place as much emphasis in this area.

Way Forward:

  • It is unfortunate that regulators hold files that could transform many institutes into prestigious universities for a country that has a history of luring international students to the Takshashila and Nalanda educational systems, among others.
  • To make it relevant for the times we live in, the Indian education system needs a significant overhaul.
  • To level the playing field for both domestic and foreign institutions, the regulatory framework must be reorganised.
  • In order to ensure that high-caliber institutions emerge and that students have access to the best education, the government must create an environment that encourages private players to invest in the education sector.
  • Additionally, the government must streamline bureaucratic procedures and uphold transparency in the field of education.


In general, the difficulties the Indian education system has faced have impeded its development and lowered the standard of education offered.These difficulties have been exacerbated by stalled procedures and out-of-date laws, underscoring the necessity of reforms in the education sector to deal with these problems.

March 2024