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Focus: GS-III Environment and Ecology

Why in news?

Weather predictions becoming more certain and help in preventing air traffic disasters may now be easier and, especially in the Himalayas region because of atmospheric turbulence parameters specific to the Himalayas region.


  • Scientists have estimated turbulence parameters in the lower troposphere over the central Himalayan region for the first time.
  • The researchers have calculated the magnitude of refractive index structure (Cn2), a constant that represents the strength of the atmospheric turbulence using observation from their Stratosphere Troposphere Radar (S T Radar).
  • Proper and timely information of the higher values of the atmospheric turbulence parameters and understanding of time and space distribution of turbulence structure in the troposphere could help improve performance of numerical weather prediction and climate models.

The Need

  • Precise knowledge on turbulence over this region will help in safe air traffic movements.
  • It is also important to model clear-air turbulence as that would aid in limiting the air traffic disasters, particularly over the complex mountainous regions.
  • Low levels of cloud are generated in a mountainous region with complex topography. Because of this, stable air in this region is set into oscillations known as mountain waves and lee waves.
  • Characterization of turbulence in the mountainous region is vital to understand the dynamics of mountain induced wave disturbances and other related phenomena, which has crucial role in modulating the general circulation wind patterns.
November 2023