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International Day for Biological Diversity


The International Day for Biological Diversity (IDB), celebrated on 22nd May 2023, raises awareness about the importance of biodiversity for sustaining life on Earth.


GS III: Environment and Ecology

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Details
  2. About International Day for Biological Diversity (IDB)
  3. Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework


Extent of Species Extinction Risk:

  • The Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services emphasizes that approximately one million species face the risk of extinction.

Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework:

  • At the 15th Conference of Parties (COP 15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework was adopted as a response to the biodiversity crisis.

Ambitious Targets for 2030:

  • The framework establishes ambitious targets to be achieved by 2030 in order to address the biodiversity crisis.
  • These targets serve as a guide and aim to facilitate conservation efforts, restoration initiatives, and the sustainable use of biodiversity.

Roadmap for Conservation, Restoration, and Sustainable Use:

  • The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework provides a roadmap for actions to be taken regarding the conservation, restoration, and sustainable utilization of biodiversity.
  • It outlines strategies and measures that can be implemented on local, national, and global levels to protect and restore ecosystems and halt species decline.

About International Day for Biological Diversity (IDB):

  • In 1993, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) designated May 22nd as the International Day for Biological Diversity (IDB).
  • The purpose of IDB is to raise awareness and promote understanding of biodiversity issues.

United Nations Decades:

  • The UNGA declared the period from 2011 to 2020 as the United Nations (UN) Decade on Biodiversity.
  • This Decade aimed to encourage the implementation of a strategic plan on biodiversity and promote the vision of living in harmony with nature.
  • Additionally, the UNGA declared 2021 to 2030 as the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development and the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration.

Theme for 2023:

  • The theme for the International Day for Biological Diversity in 2023 is “From Agreement to Action: Build Back Biodiversity.”
  • This theme underscores the urgent need to move beyond commitments and translate them into concrete actions.
  • The focus is on revitalizing and safeguarding biodiversity through practical measures and initiatives.

Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework:

  • The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework calls for urgent and integrated action to incorporate biodiversity considerations into all sectors of the global economy.
  • However, crucial issues such as funding conservation in poorer countries and committing to biodiversity-friendly supply chains are left to be discussed later.
  • It is important to note that the framework is not a binding international agreement.
  • The framework urges parties to mainstream biodiversity protection in decision-making and recognize the significance of conservation in safeguarding human health.
  • The theme of the declaration is “Ecological Civilization: Building a Shared Future for All Life on Earth.”
Post-2020 Implementation Plan and Capacity Building:
  • Adoption of the framework commits nations to support the development, adoption, and implementation of an effective post-2020 implementation plan.
  • It also involves the formulation of a capacity-building action plan for the Cartagena Protocol on biosafety, which aims to protect biodiversity from potential risks associated with living modified organisms from modern biotechnology.
  • The signatory nations pledge to ensure that post-pandemic recovery policies, programs, and plans contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, promoting sustainable and inclusive development.
30 by 30 Target:
  • The declaration references the “30 by 30” target, which is a key proposal under discussion at COP15.
  • This target aims to designate 30% of the Earth’s land and oceans with protected status by 2030.
Goals and Targets:

The framework comprises four goals and 23 targets to be achieved by 2030.


  1. Conserve and restore biodiversity.
  2. Ensure sustainable use of biodiversity.
  3. Share benefits fairly and equitably.
  4. Enable transformative change.


-Source: Down to Earth

February 2024