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Introduce the concept of Artificial Intelligence (AI). How does Al help clinical diagnosis? Do you perceive any threat to privacy of the individual in the use of Al in healthcare ?

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that aims to create machines capable of mimicking human cognitive functions such as learning, reasoning, and problem-solving.

AI in Clinical Diagnosis: AI’s capabilities in healthcare are vast and transformative. Its prowess in pattern recognition, for example, is being employed to read and interpret medical images. Deep learning models, a subset of AI, are now capable of detecting diseases in X-rays or MRIs often with accuracy comparable or even surpassing human experts. For instance, Google’s DeepMind has developed an AI that can spot eye diseases in scans. Another example is PathAI, which aids pathologists in identifying diseases by analyzing tissue samples, potentially catching cases that could be missed by the human eye.

Threat to Privacy: The incorporation of AI in healthcare is not without challenges. A primary concern is the privacy of patients. AI systems thrive on large datasets, meaning that vast amounts of personal health information might be processed and analyzed. If not properly encrypted or anonymized, this data could be vulnerable to breaches. For example, a hospital in South Korea faced backlash when it was discovered they used patient data without consent to develop an AI diagnostic tool. Such incidents emphasize the critical balance between innovation and ethical considerations.

Conclusion: While AI’s potential in revolutionizing clinical diagnosis is immense, it is imperative to ensure that its deployment respects patient privacy and upholds the highest ethical standards. Proper governance, consent protocols, and data protection measures are vital components of integrating AI responsibly in healthcare.

Q. 6 Discuss several ways in which microorganisms can help in meeting the current fuel shortage. (Answer in 150 words)

Microorganisms play a pivotal role in addressing current fuel shortages by providing sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Here are several ways they contribute:

  1. Bioethanol Production: Certain yeasts and bacteria can ferment sugars derived from plants to produce bioethanol. For instance, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used in the fermentation of sugarcane juice or corn syrup to generate bioethanol, which can serve as a renewable fuel for vehicles.
  2. Biodiesel Production: Microalgae, such as Chlorella and Spirulina, can produce lipids or oils that can be converted to biodiesel. Some strains of microalgae can produce up to 60% of their dry weight in the form of oil, which is significantly more than traditional crops like soybean or palm.
  3. Biogas Production: Anaerobic bacteria break down organic waste in the absence of oxygen to produce methane-rich biogas. This process, known as anaerobic digestion, is utilized in landfills and waste treatment plants. In India, “Gobar gas” plants use cow dung to produce methane, which serves as a domestic fuel source.
  4. Biohydrogen Production: Certain bacteria and algae can produce hydrogen under specific conditions. This biohydrogen can potentially serve as a clean fuel source.
  5. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs): These are devices that use bacteria to convert organic matter directly into electricity. While still in the experimental stage, MFCs have the potential to harness energy from wastewater treatments.

Conclusion: Microorganisms offer a promising avenue to combat fuel shortages by enabling the production of sustainable and renewable energy sources. Harnessing their capabilities can significantly reduce our dependency on fossil fuels and contribute to environmental conservation.

October 2023