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NCQG: Promoting Equitable Climate Financing


It was vital to examine and modify the climate financing infrastructure during the recently finished Bonn climate conference in Germany, which was expected to lay out the political agenda for the significant Conference Of Parties-28 (COP28) meeting in Dubai at the end of the year.


GS Paper3 : Environment- Climate financing

Mains Question

Describe the New Collective Quantified Goal (NCQG)’s importance in climate finance and its possible effects on developing countries. Examine developed countries’ viewpoints on the approach of collective goals and the mobilisation of investments from the private sector. Analyse the merits of having distinct targets for loss and damage, adaptation, and mitigation within the NCQG. (250 Words)

The NCQG: Developing Nations’ Empowerment

  • The $100 billion commitment each year: Developed nations promised to give developing nations $100 billion yearly by 2020 in 2009. On the other hand, it became clear that much more money is needed to combat climate change. As a result, the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement established the New Collective Quantified Goal (NCQG). By taking into account scientific data and addressing the rising demands for funding for Loss and Damage, the NCQG seeks to be in line with the changing needs of developing countries.
  • Anchoring the Needs and Priorities of Developing Nations: The NCQG raises the commitment ceiling for affluent countries, assuring greater consideration of the needs and objectives of developing countries, and is recognised as the “most important climate goal” in the world. It addresses the prior commitment’s ambiguity over the definition and sources of “climate finance.”
  • Addressing the Increasing Calls for money for Loss and Damage: Climate advocacy groups stress the growing demand for money to address Loss and Damage brought on by climate change. In particular in impoverished nations, the NCQG seeks to offer enough financial support for mitigating these negative effects.

Justification for a New Finance Goal

  • Assessing the $100 billion target’s implementation: The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development estimates that developed nations contributed $83.3 billion of the $100 billion promise in 2020. However, Oxfam’s investigation identifies potentially inaccurate data and reporting procedures, raising questions about whether the target will be met.
  • False Data and Reporting Practises: The evaluation of progress in climate funding is hampered by problems with transparency and a lack of trustworthy reporting procedures. Assessing the real monies allocated and dispersed requires improving reporting transparency and accuracy.
  • Lack of Clarity in “Climate Finance” Definition and Source: Tracking and evaluating the financial contributions made by industrialised countries is made more difficult by the lack of a generally accepted definition and sources of “climate finance.” Accountability and efficient resource allocation depend on a clear definition and transparent reporting.
  • Responsibilities and Obligations of Developed Countries: Developed countries are more accountable for climate change because their economic expansion frequently generates large carbon emissions. This understanding necessitates an equitable division of the costs associated with climate financing.

Issues with Climate Finance

  • Increased Quantitative Availability but Limited Accessibility: Although the amount of money available for climate finance has increased, many developing countries still find it difficult to get immediate access to these funds. Effective climate action depends on enhancing distribution effectiveness and accessibility.
  • Private Sources and Delayed Disbursement: Private sources account for a sizable amount of climate finance, which causes delays in disbursement. For developing countries to properly execute climate programmes, timely access to finance is essential.
  • Burden of Loans and Equity: The majority of climate money is given in the form of loans and equity, which might put developing countries under financial strain. Their ability to combat climate change and create sustainable infrastructure is hampered by this.
  • Delayed Access and High Interest Rates: Accessing climate finance frequently entails protracted waiting periods, which makes it harder for developing countries to pay off their debt. Their efforts to promote sustainable development are further hampered by high loan interest rates.

Views from Developed Countries

  • NCQG as a Collective Goal for All Nations: Developed countries contend that the NCQG should be a global objective that both developed and developing countries should work towards. This viewpoint fosters global cooperation and calls on all nations to fund climate change.
  • Possible Effects on Developing Nations: There are worries that making the NCQG a global objective may unfairly burden underdeveloped countries. They could be unable to afford the financing needed for loss and damage repair, adaption, and mitigation.
  • Mobilising Private Sector Loans and Investments: Developed nations stress the significance of attracting private sector loans and investment for climate funding. They think that greater corporate sector participation can greatly speed up the execution of climate action programmes and help with finance requirements.

The Important Year 2023

  • The NCQG Agreement Deadline is: Countries have till 2023 to come to an agreement on the NCQG, so the year 2023 is quite important. Through this agreement, financial targets and obligations for climate financing will be established, beyond the prior cap of $100 billion annually.
  • Estimating the Investments Necessary for a Low-Carbon Economy: According to experts, the annual investment required to make the switch to a low-carbon economy ranges from $4 trillion to $6 trillion. These large financial requirements highlight how crucial it is to agree on the NCQG and to mobilise resources accordingly.
  • Investigating Separate Targets for Loss and Damage, Adaptation, and Mitigation: To effectively address the various facets of climate change, some advocate defining distinct targets or sub-goals inside the NCQG. This strategy guarantees a thorough concentration on increasing concessional funding, lowering debt accumulation, and ensuring a fair transition.


Prioritising inclusion, openness, and efficient resource allocation becomes crucial as nations attempt to complete the NCQG. The NCQG may promote an equitable and citizen-led transition to a sustainable future by addressing the issues of accessibility, debt loads, and assuring the engagement of all stakeholders. The next Global Stocktake at COP28 will be crucial in determining the roadmap for climate financing and facilitating the change needed to effectively tackle climate change.

December 2023