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Overview of Terai

Context:

In a first, a tiger was spotted in the Shaukiyathal forest near Jageshwar Dham, Almora, at an elevation of over 6,000 feet in the Terai region of Uttarakhand.

Relevance:

GS I: Geography

Overview of Terai:

Geographical Location: Terai, also known as Tarai, is a lowland belt situated along the Nepal-India border, running parallel to the lower Himalayan ranges.

Geographical Extent:
  • It stretches from the Yamuna River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east.
  • Extends over states in India: Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal.
  • Spans nearly 800 km from east to west and 30-40 km from north to south.
Elevation and Terrain:
  • Ranges from about 300 meters above sea level to approximately 1,000 meters at the foot of the Siwalik Range.
  • Average elevation is below 750 meters.
  • The flatland is formed by Gangetic alluvium, including silt, clay, sand, pebbles, and gravel.
Hydrological Features:
  • Numerous springs at the northern edge, giving rise to several streams, including the significant Ghaghara River.
  • The presence of these water features contributes to the marshy character of the Terai.
Protected Areas and Biodiversity:
  • Home to well-known tiger reserves and protected areas, including Corbett Tiger Reserve, Rajaji National Park, Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, and Valmiki Tiger Reserve.
  • In total, the landscape boasts 13 protected areas, nine in India and four in Nepal.
Bhabar Region:
  • Interspersed with Terai is the Bhabar region, characterized by coarse gravel and shingle deposits that support sal (Shorea robusta) forests.

-Source: Indian Express


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