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Phase III of the e-Courts Project


In the contemporary era dominated by digital advancements that have seamlessly integrated into our daily lives, the judicial system faces the imperative of adapting and harnessing technology for the collective benefit of society. At the forefront of this transformative endeavor in India is the e-Courts Mission Mode Project (MMP), which, now in its Phase III, represents a noteworthy leap towards fostering a justice delivery system that is not only more efficient but also accessible and transparent.



  • E-Governance
  • Judiciary
  • Government Policies & Interventions

Mains Question:

With reference to the recently initiated Phase III of the e-Courts Mission Mode Project (MMP), analyse the achievements of the project’s Phase I and Phase II. How does the Phase III propel us forward towards the goal of a modern, inclusive, and technologically advanced justice system. (15 Marks, 250 Words).

About the e-Courts Project:

e-Courts Integrated Mission Mode Project:

Overview & Implementation:

  • The e-Courts Integrated Mission Mode Project, initiated in 2007 focusses on the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) development of the Indian Judiciary.
  • The initiative is collaboratively executed in partnership with the e-Committee Supreme Court of India and the Department of Justice.


The project unfolds in distinct phases:

  • Phase I: Implemented between 2011 and 2015.
  • Phase II: Initiated in 2015, computerizing various District & Subordinate courts.

Project Initiatives:

Several initiatives have been undertaken as part of the project’s objectives, including:

  • Network Enhancement: The Wide Area Network (WAN) Project has achieved connectivity for 99.4% of total Court Complexes across India, featuring improved bandwidth speed.
  • Open-Source Software: The Case Information Software (CIS) operates on Free and Open-Source Software (FOSS) developed by the National Informatics Centre (NIC).
  • NJDG Database: The National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG) serves as an online platform, offering information on orders, judgments, and cases from computerized district and subordinate courts.
  • Case Status Information Access: Open Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), introduced in 2020, facilitate access to NJDG data by Central and State Governments, institutional litigants, and local bodies, enhancing pendency monitoring and compliance. Seven platforms provide real-time information to lawyers and litigants.
  • Electronic Case Management Tools (ECMT): Mobile Apps have been developed for lawyers and judges to efficiently manage cases.
  • Virtual Courts: Operational in 21 Virtual Courts across 17 States/UTs, handling traffic challan cases and processing over 2.40 crore cases.
  • Video-Conferencing (VC): Enabled VC facilities between court complexes and jails, with the Supreme Court leading globally in conducting numerous hearings.
  • E-filing: A new e-filing system has been introduced with enhanced features, adopted by 19 High Courts as of 2022.
  • Summons Handling: The National Service and Tracking of Electronic Processes (NSTEP) initiative, currently operational in 28 States/UTs, facilitates technology-enabled process serving and summons issuance.
  • User-friendly Portal: The “Judgment Search” portal, offering user-friendly features, has been initiated, providing free access to everyone.

Awareness and Familiarization:

To foster widespread awareness and familiarity with eFiling and eCourts services, manuals and brochures are available in English, Hindi, and 11 regional languages for the benefit of lawyers.

Phase III of the e-Courts Project:

The overarching goal of this phase is nothing short of a revolution in the Indian judiciary, with a particular focus on leveraging digitization to introduce innovative features and technologies that enhance court operations and elevate the overall judicial ecosystem.

Digitization and Preservation of Court Records:

  • The digitization and preservation of court records, targeting around 3100 crore documents is an objective of Phase III.
  • Concurrently, the establishment of Paperless Courts takes center stage in this phase, emphasizing a strategic shift from traditional paper-based processes to a more efficient digital paradigm.
  • By reducing reliance on physical documents and embracing digital alternatives, this initiative aspires to streamline court processes, eliminate the cumbersome burden of paperwork, and elevate the efficiency of case management.
  • The transition to a paperless environment is not merely a procedural enhancement; it is a paradigm shift that not only conserves time and resources but also makes a meaningful contribution to environmental sustainability.

Incorporation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Other Technologies:

  • Furthermore, the upcoming Phase III of the e-Courts Mission Mode Project is poised to incorporate cutting-edge technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI), marking a crucial advancement.
  • AI-driven systems are anticipated to assume a pivotal role by assisting in legal research, case analysis, and decision-making, thereby lightening the load on judges and enhancing the expediency and precision of judgments.
  • The integration of AI into the judicial system holds the promise of elevating the overall quality and consistency of legal outcomes, ensuring that verdicts are fair and impartial.
  • This financial investment is intended to facilitate the deployment of state-of-the-art hardware and software, along with the establishment of robust cloud infrastructure, networking enhancements, and initiatives for capacity-building among judicial personnel.

Significance of Digitization Efforts:

  • The advantages brought about by the digitization efforts in e-Courts Phase III extend beyond mere improvements in efficiency and accessibility; they also contribute to fostering transparency and accountability within the justice system.
  • The utilization of technology to live-stream court proceedings has a profound impact, allowing the general public to directly observe the judicial process.
  • This, in turn, contributes to building trust, ensuring judicial accountability, and empowering citizens to actively participate in the administration of justice.
  • As Phase III of the eCourts Mission Mode Project unfolds, we stand at the threshold of a transformative era in the Indian justice system.
  • It represents a significant stride toward realizing the vision of a citizen-centric justice delivery system, where every individual, regardless of their background, can efficiently and cost-effectively access their constitutional rights and seek redressal.


The digital transformation observed in Phase III of the eCourts initiative represents a significant achievement on the path to developing a modern, inclusive, and technologically advanced justice system. Through wholeheartedly embracing the capabilities of digital technologies, India is laying the groundwork for a future where justice is authentically within reach for everyone, thereby strengthening the foundational principles of equality, fairness, and the rule of law.

April 2024