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PIB – 04 October 2021




Focus: GS I- Modern History

Why in News?

The Prime Minister has paid tribute to former Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri Ji on his Jayanti.

About Lal Bahadur Shastri:

  • Lal Bahadur Shastri shares his birthday with Gandhi and hails from the province of Jawaharlal Nehru. He became India’s second Prime Minister (1964-66).
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri was born on 2nd October, 1904 at Mughalsarai, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.
  • He was given the title “Shastri” meaning “Scholar” by Vidya Peeth as a part of his bachelor’s degree award.
  • He introduced a slogan “Jai Jawan Jai Kisan” and played a pivotal role in shaping India’s future.
  • He became a life member of the Servants of the People Society (Lok Sevak Mandal), founded by Lal Lajpat Rai. There he started to work for the upliftment of backward classes, and later he became the President of that Society.
  • He participated in the non-cooperation movement and the Salt Satyagraha.
  • He served for more than 40 years in INC and participated in the freedom movement.
Contributions and Journey of Shastriji:
  • As a Minister of Railways, he resigned twice, assuming moral responsibility for railway accidents in 1956 
  • Setting an early standard, Shastri was one of six who left their cabinet posts in 1963 to work in the party organisation under the Kamaraj Plan.
  • He was chosen by Nehru & unanimously elevated as Nehru’s successor, upon his death.
  • His Prime-ministership began amid a renewed bout of food scarcity and resultant price rise. It caused a forex crisis from food procurement. Given the political churn that existed, Shastri was able to construct the Food Corporation of India on the way to an eventual ‘Green Revolution’.
  • Under his tenure, he forced certain corrupt CMs of Congress and Cabinet Ministers to vacate their offices
  • He had to deal with the language violence in Tamil Nadu, youth challenges in Orissa, enduring demand for a Punjabi suba and continuing farce in Kashmir
  • In the international arena too, Shastri had to navigate between a subdued Non-Aligned Movement, the nuclear challenge of China, a change in the Soviet leadership, a new leader in Pakistan and a war with it. Prepared for a prolonged war, he resisted indiscriminate international intercession, restrained internal war fever especially its potential to deteriorate in communal outbreaks, remained firm through the retreats in one sector and the advances in another in the war’s widening arc, and rallied the country with his call of ‘Jai Jawan Jai Kisan’ to become his epitaph.
  • In the end, he accepted the Soviet offer for mediation and set about the road to Tashkent, where an agreement was signed with his Pakistani counterpart, President Muhammad Ayub Khan in January 1966, more or less restoring the status quo. (He breathed his last in Tashkent)
  • There was a discernible shift from personalised to institutionalised government; the laying of stress from industry to agriculture, and a move from command to economy.


Focus: GS III- Defence

Why in News?

The 15th Edition of Indo-Nepal Joint Training Exercise, EXERCISE SURYA KIRAN XV culminated at Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand after 14 days of rigorous training.


  • During the exercise, an Infantry Battalion each from the Indian Army and the Nepali Army will be training together to develop inter-operability and share their experience of counter terrorism operations and disaster relief operations.
  • A traditional opening ceremony was organized to mark the commencement of the exercise in which both contingents marched in harmony to the Indian and Nepali military tunes.
  • Lt Gen SS Mahal, GOC Uttar Bharat Area addressed the gathering and exhorted the contingents to train and strengthen mutual confidence, inter-operability and also to share best practices.
  • After intense military training, the joint exercise concluded with both Armies exhibiting their combat power and dominance over the terrorist groups during the Validation Exercise.
  • The closing ceremony showcased the immense talent with unique traditional touch of both Nations.
  • The senior officials expressed their satisfaction and appreciation towards the professional conduct of the exercise.


Focus: GS III- Defence

Why in News?

Indian contingent departs for Sri Lanka joint exercise Mitra Shakti 21.


  • The 8th Edition of India Sri Lanka bilateral joint Exercise Mitra Shakti will be conducted at Combat Training School, Ampara in Sri Lanka from 4 to 15 October 2021.
  • An all arms contingent of 120 personnel of the Indian Army will participate in the exercise along with a battalion of the Sri Lankan Army.
  • The aim of the exercise is to promote close relations between Armies of both countries and enhance inter-operability and sharing best practices in counter insurgency and counter terrorism operations.
  • The exercise will involve tactical level operations at sub unit level in an international Counter Insurgency and Counter Terrorism environment and will go a long way in further strengthening the relationship between both the South Asian Nations and will act as a catalyst in bringing synergy and cooperation at grass root level between both Armies.
  • The 7th Edition of Exercise Mitra Shakti was conducted at Foreign Training Node (FTN), Pune, Maharashtra (India) in 2019.

November 2023