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PIB 10th May

Contents

  1. National Technology Day
  2. Indigenous IgG ELISA test
  3. Operation Samudra Setu
  4. Mission Sagar
  5. Defence Research Ultraviolet Sanitiser (DRUVS)

NATIONAL TECHNOLOGY DAY

Focus: GS-III Science and Technology, Prelims

Why in news?

The National Technology Day is celebrated on May 11.

Technology Development Board (TDB) is organising a conference titled “RESTART” on National Technology Day 2020.

National Technology Day

  • TDB, on behalf of the Ministry of Science & Technology, celebrates May 11 every year as National Technology Day to commemorate achievements of innovations and technological excellence in the country.
  • The day has a historical perspective as it was on May 11, 1998, that India achieved a major technological breakthrough by successfully carrying out nuclear tests at Pokhran.
  • Further, the first indigenous aircraft “Hansa-3” was test flown at Bangalore on this day; and India also performed successful test firing of the Trishul missile on the same day.
  • Since 1999, the day is being celebrated as National Technology Day.
  • The celebration of Technology Day symbolizes India’s quest for scientific inquiry, technological creativity & innovations, and the integration of these developments into national socio-economic benefits and global presence.

National Technology Day 2020

  • TDB is celebrating National Technology Day 2020, focusing on technological solutions towards that end.
  • These technologies would include, medical technologies, advanced technologies and manufacturing that would prepare India for the post COVID-19 time.

‘RESTART’ Conference

  • A high-level digital conference on ‘Rebooting the Economy through Science, Technology and Research Translations titled RESTART’ is being organised by TDB.
  • The conference will have technical sessions on ‘Medicines & Medical Technologies’; ‘Advanced Materials – New Technology Horizons’; ‘Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Sustainable Future and Global Innovation’& Technology Alliance for Global Economic Leadership.
  • The conference will bring together Scientists, Technocrats, Government officials, Diplomats, WHO officials and dignitaries from national and international Industry, Research Institutions and Academic Institutions on a single platform to share their insights on the role played by S & T in the global healthcare crisis and find solutions that not only address the current pandemic but will also help us in facing the challenges ahead.

Technology Development Board (TDB)

  • Technology Development Board (TDB) is a statutory body.
  • TDB was established by Technology Development Board Act, 1995.
  • It was formed to promote development and commercialization of indigenous technology and adaptation of imported technology for much wider application.
  • It is a body of the Department of Science & Technology (DST) and Confederation of Indian Industry (CII).
  • The Board plays a pro-active role by encouraging enterprises to take up technology-oriented products.
  • The board provides equity capital or loans to industrial concerns and financial assistance to research and development institutions.

Extra Information: GITA

  • In order to stimulate private sector’s investment in R&D, TDB established Global Innovation & Technology Alliance (GITA) as a Section 25 company in a joint venture between Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and TDB.
  • The GITA will assist Department of Science & Technology (DST) in implementing industrial research and development programme with different countries under bilateral and multilateral science and technology cooperation agreements.
  • In these country-specific programmes, if one industry from India and one industry from another country proposed jointly to do R&D for developing a marketable product, both the governments will provide financial support up to 50% of project cost to their respective industries.
  • The GITA has been envisaged as an industry-driven body for supporting competitive innovation clusters which in future can be entrusted with administering of Innovation Fund under a PPP model, IP acquisition by the government for non-exclusive licensing for public and social good, sectors of R&D and promotion of innovation culture in centres of excellence.

Read More about National technology Day here: https://www.legacyias.com/national-technology-day-for-upsc-exam/


INDIGENOUS IgG ELISA TEST

Focus: GS-III Science and Technology, Prelims

Why in news?

  • The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)-National Institute of Virology (NIV) at Pune has developed and validated the indigenous IgG ELISA test “COVID KAVACH ELISA” for antibody detection for COVID-19.
  • Most of the diagnostic material for COVID19 is imported into India from other countries. Therefore, Indian scientists are tirelessly engaged in developing indigenous diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2.
  • While real time RT-PCR is the frontline test for clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, robust antibody tests are critical for surveillance to understand the proportion of population exposed to infection.

Significance and Advantages of IgG Elisa

  • ICMR-National Institute of Virology (NIV) scientists have Developed and Validated – completely indigenous IgG ELISA test for antibody detection for SARS-CoV-2 with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • The test will have the advantage of testing 90 samples together in a single run of 2.5 hours.
  • ELISA based testing is easily possible even at district level as the ELISA kit has inactivated virus.
  • There are also minimal bio-safety and bio-security requirements as compared to the real-time RT-PCR test.
  • The test has an advantage of having much higher sensitivity and specificity as compared to the several rapid test kits which have recently flooded the Indian market.
  • ICMR has partnered with Zydus Cadila for mass scale production of the “COVID KAVACH ELISA” test kits, and this becomes one of the most crucial examples of “Make in India” in record time.

What is IgG and How does ELISA work?

  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) belongs to immunoglobulin family, and consists of gamma (γ) heavy chain in the constant (C) region. IgG is a widely expressed serum antibody.
  • This ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of a target protein in biological samples such as serum, plasma, cell culture supernatants, urine and/or cell and tissue lysates.
  • Human IgG ELISA Kit has been used to determine the total IgG antibody levels in serum samples.

OPERATION SAMUDRA SETU

Focus: GS-II International Relations, Prelims

Why in news?

INS Jalashwa, deployed for “Operation Samudra Setu”, entered Kochi harbour with a total of 698 Indian nationals stranded at Maldives.

INS Magar, the second Indian Naval ship to reach Male, Maldives for evacuation of Indian citizens.

Operation Samudra Setu

  • The Indian Navy has launched ‘Operation Samudra Setu’ as a part of national effort to repatriate Indian citizens from overseas.
  • It envisages to bring back around two thousand Indians in two ships during the first phase of evacuation.
  • INS Jalashwa and INS Magar are being operated as part of efforts to repatriate Indian nationals from foreign shores.
  • INS Jalashwa is the largest amphibious platform in the Navy. It can normally accommodate 1,000 people but will take about 800.

Vande Bharat Mission

  • Vande Bharat Mission will become the biggest evacuation exercise to bring back Indian citizens stranded abroad amidst the coronavirus-induced travel restrictions.
  • ‘Vande Bharat Mission’ will see 64 flights being operated from May 7 to May 13 to bring back around 15,000 Indian nationals stranded abroad.
  • Air India and its subsidiary Air India Express will operate 64 flights to bring back stranded Indians from 12 countries.
  • The mission has given priority to Indian citizens with “compelling reasons to return” – like those whose employment have been terminated, those whose visas have expired and not expected to be renewed under the present circumstances and those who have lost family members in recent times.
  • The entire cost of travel will be borne by the passengers under the mission.

MISSION SAGAR

Focus: GS-II International Relations, Prelims

Why in news?

As part of the Government of India outreach amidst the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, Indian Naval Ship Kesari has departed for Maldives, Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar and Comoros, to provide Food Items, COVID related Medicines including HCQ Tablets and Special Ayurvedic Medicines with Medical Assistance Teams embarked, on 10 May 2020.

Significance

  • This deployment as ‘Mission Sagar’, is in line with India’s role as the first responder in the region and builds on the excellent relations existing between these countries to battle the COVID-19 pandemic and its resultant difficulties.
  • The deployment is in consonance with the Prime Ministers vision of Security and Growth for All in the Region ‘SAGAR’ and highlights the importance accorded by India to relations with her neighbouring countries and further strengthens the existing bond.

What is SAGAR?

  • In March 2015, Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited three small but significant Indian Ocean island states — Seychelles, Mauritius, and Sri Lanka. During this tour, he unveiled India’s strategic vision for the Indian Ocean: Security and Growth for All in the Region (SAGAR).
  • SAGAR seeks to differentiate India’s leadership from the modus operandi of other regionally active major powers and to reassure littoral states as India’s maritime influence grows.
  • India’s SAGAR vision is intended to be “consultative, democratic and equitable”.
  • India’s recent admission as observer to the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) will put this vision to the test.
  • Following a request from New Delhi, the IOC granted observer status to India on March 6 at the Commission’s 34th Council of Ministers.

DEFENCE RESEARCH ULTRAVIOLET SANITISER (DRUVS)

Focus: GS-III Science and Technology, Prelims

Why in news?

Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed an automated contactless UVC sanitisation cabinet, called Defence Research Ultraviolet Sanitiser (DRUVS).

It has been designed to sanitise mobile phones, iPads, laptops, currency notes, cheque leafs, challans, passbooks, paper, envelopes, etc.

Details

DRUVS UltraViolet to Sanitise
  • The DRUVS cabinet is having contactless operation.
  • It provides 360-degree exposure of UVC to the objects placed inside the cabinet.
  • The RCI has also developed an automated UVC currency sanitising device, called NOTESCLEAN.
  • Bundles of currency notes can be sanitised using DRUVS, however disinfection of each currency notes using it will be a time consuming process.
  • It picks the notes one by one and makes them pass through a series of UVC lamps for complete disinfection.

How does UV help in Disinfection and how is it better?

How UV Works in Disinfection
  • UV light in the range of wavelengths between 200 and 300 nm is capable of inactivating microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, thus disinfecting both air and solid surfaces.
  • Often, chemical disinfectants are not enough to remove the bacteria and viruses found in hospitals and other contamination prone environment.
  • Rapid decontamination of the used patient-care beds and hospital rooms before admission of subsequent occupants is a major requirement in hospitals in view of the limited availability of beds.
  • Coronavirus is sensitive to UVC light, as in the case of other viruses and bacteria.
  • The germicidal effects of UVC irradiation with a peak intensity at 254 nm results in cellular damage of the virus, thereby inhibiting cellular replication.
  • Unlike chemical approaches to disinfection, UV light provides rapid, effective inactivation of microorganisms through a physical process.
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