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PIB 10th November 2020


  1. Thirty Meter Telescope Project.
  3. HunarHaat


Focus:  GS 3; Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

Why in News?

Indian astronomers collaborated with Nobel laureate on Thirty Meter Telescope Project

About Thirty Meter Telescope Project

  • The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is a proposed extremely large telescope (ELT) that has become controversial due to its planned location on Mauna Kea, on the island of Hawaii, the most sacred mountain in Native Hawaiian culture.
  • The TMT would become the largest visible-light telescope on Mauna Kea.
Top view of tmt complex.jpg

Above image of Artist’s rendering of proposed telescope TMT.

Site for 
Mauna Kea 
Ocean View 
10 miles 

Above image shows the TMT site on the island of Hawaii near Mauna Kea Volcano.

  • The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is a new class of extremely large telescopes that will allow us to see deeper into space and observe cosmic objects with unprecedented sensitivity.
  • The TMT with its 30 m prime mirror diameter, it will be three times as wide, with nine times more area, than the largest currently existing visible-light telescope in the world.
  • This will provide unparalleled resolution with TMT images more than 12 times sharper than those from the Hubble Space Telescope.
  • The TMT when operational, it will provide new observational opportunities in essentially every field of astronomy and astrophysics.
  • While observing in wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared, this unique instrument will allow astronomers to address fundamental questions in astronomy ranging from understanding star and planet formation to unraveling the history of galaxies and the development of large-scale structure in the universe. 
Thirty Meter Telesc 
Astronomy's Next-GeneratiowObsyyatory

Above attached image of Thirty Meter Telescope.

  • The TMT will be a unique tool for probing many outstanding open questions in astronomy. 
  • Its adaptive optics and spectroscopic capabilities will allow astronomers to explore the mysterious period in the life of the universe when the first stars and galaxies were formed, providing information about the nature of “first-light” objects and their effects on the universe’s evolution. 
  • The TMT will also observe the formation and development of the large-scale structures by looking at faint distant galaxies and the intergalactic medium, providing information on the physics of the early universe and the nature of dark matter that are inaccessible using any other techniques.

Above image shows the areas in which Thirty Meter Telescope can do wonders.

  • The TMT’s high resolution will extend scientist’s capability to detect and investigate black holes that reside in the center of many distant galaxies, as well as study in detail the black hole in the center of our own Milky Way.
  • The TMT will also play a very important role in advancing our knowledge of  the physical processes that lead to star and planet formation.
  • The TMT will be able to characterize and study the properties of exoplanets leading us closer to finding out if life exists beyond the Earth.
  • Finally, the advanced capabilities of the TMT will very likely lead to discoveries that we cannot anticipate and scientific impact far beyond what we envision today.
30-met rs 
in diameter 
square meters 
12 time 
than that of the 
Hubble Space Telescope 
of reflective glass pieced 
together to form one 
giant primary mirror

         Above image shows the Thirty Meter Telescope specialties and extra features compare to existing or before existed.

  • The Thirty Meter Telescope is being designed and developed by the TMT International Observatory LLC (TIO).
  • The TIO is a non-profit international partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, the National Institutes of Natural Sciences of Japan, the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Department of Science and Technology of India, and the National Research Council (Canada).
  • The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) is a TIO Associate and major funding for TMT has been provided by the Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation.
  • The TIO will also run the TMT operations once the telescope is completed.

Extra Info

About Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa

  • The Mauna Kea is the highest peak in the Hawaiian islands.
  • The Mauna Kea massive dormant volcano rises 13,796 feet (4,205 m) above sea level and in the winter its top is often blanketed in snow.
  • The “Mauna kea” means “White Mountain,” but there are those who say it is short for “Mauna o Wakea,” the mountain of the Hawaiian deity Wākea.
  • The Mauna Kea is a Shield Volcano i.e. a broad domed volcano with gently sloping sides, characteristic of the eruption of fluid, basaltic lava.
  • The Interactions between water and lava at shield volcanoes can cause some eruptions to become Hydrovolcanic.
File:Hawaiian Eruption-numbers.svg

Above image is the Diagram of a Hawaiian Eruption and the number in the diagram mentioned below

1. Ash Plume 

2. Lava Fountain

 3. Crater

4. Lava Cake

5. Fumaroles

 6. Lava Flows

7. Layers of lava and ash

8. Stratum

9. Sill (sheet also based on thickness)

10. Magma conduit

11. Magma Chamber 

12. Dike.

Mauna Kea: Hawaii pulls police as 18-story TMT project is put on hold

          Above image of Mauna Kea on Hawaii Island

  • The Hawaiian name “Mauna Loa” means “Long Mountain“.
  • This name is apt, for the subaerial part of Mauna Loa extends for about 120 km (74 mi) from the southern tip of the island to the summit caldera and then east-northeast to the coastline near Hilo.
  • The Mauna Loa is the largest shield volcano on Earth.
e oggd 
a,uasa8 IsaJOd 
Isa•oy o 
Oò e N•ne 
000 u!eldeo 
eol , 
IO puelsl 
ae'AeMey i
Mt. St. Helens (2550 m) 
Cinder cone 
Mauna Loa (4169 m) 
Kilauea (1247 m) 
sea level

Above image of Profiles of Mauna Loa shield volcano, Mt. St. Helens composite volcano, and a large cinder cone.


Focus:  GS 3; Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

Why in News?

Statement of DST regarding INSPIRE fellowship matter

About INSPIRE Programme

  • The Innovation of Science Pursuit for Inspire Research (INSPIRE) is one such innovative scheme proposed by the Department of Science & Technology for attraction of talent to science.
  • The basic objective of INSPIRE would be to communicate to the youth population of the country the excitements of creative pursuit of science and attract talent to the study of science at an early stage and build the required critical human resource pool for strengthening and expanding the Science & Technology system and R&D base.
  • The INSPIRE Scheme has included three programs and five components. They are as follows

a) Scheme for Early Attraction of Talents for Science (SEATS),

 b) Scholarship for Higher Education (SHE) and

c) Assured Opportunity for Research Careers (AORC).

  • The schematic diagram of the programme is shown below
Progra m 
Sche me 
SHE Program 
AORC Program 
Inte r nship 
Fe Ilowship 
  • The Government of India approved this Scheme in November 2008 in the 11th Plan Period.


Focus:  GS 3; Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

Why in News?

The Hunar Haat will restart from tomorrow after a gap of about 7 months due to the Corona pandemic.

About Hunar Haat (#VocalForLocal)

  • The ‘Hunar Haat‘, the flagship programme of the Minority Affairs Ministry to create employment opportunities for artisans across India. 
  • The Hunar Haat is an exhibition of handicrafts and traditional products made by artisans from the minority communities.
  • These are organised by the Ministry of Minority Affairs under USTTAD (Upgrading the Skills & Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development) scheme.
  • The USTTAD scheme aims to promote and preserve the rich heritage of the traditional arts & crafts of the minority communities.
  • These Haat aim to provide market exposure and employment opportunities to artisans, craftsmen and traditional culinary experts.
  • It envisages boosting the skills of craftsmen, weavers and artisans who are already engaged in the traditional ancestral work.
  • The ‘Hunar Haat’ has proved to be “Empowerment Exchange” for master artisans and craftsmen.
June 2024