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PIB – 11 October 2021


  4. MALABAR 2021



Focus: GS II Health

Why in News?

Paving the way for academic collaboration in India’s traditional medicine systems, especially in the field of Ayurveda, between the two countries, the Ministry of Ayush has entered into an agreement with Croatia.


  • The two sides will undertake academic activities in the field of Ayurveda in collaboration with the identified institutions. 
  • There will be close cooperation and collaboration on research, including study design and execution, developing evidence-based guidelines for integrating Ayurvedic principles and practices with modern medicine, conducting lectures, workshops, seminars and conferences, and other such activities on Ayurveda.
  • Both sides will also develop academic standards and courses in accordance with the needs of the institution, end users and stakeholders and develop Ayurvedic medical education guidelines for Ayurveda education in Croatia.
  • This will promote academic research, clinical and educational activities, medical education, training, and competency building

About Traditional Medicine:

The traditional Indian system of medicine comprises of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH), is a perennially neglected alternative medicine sector.

  • The word Ayurveda means ‘Science of Life’ and employs treatment modalities, such as purification, palliation, prescription of various diets, exercises and the avoidance of disease causing factors and it evolved nearly 5000 years ago.
  • The Ayurvedic medicine, though practiced for a wide range of health needs, is more commonly used for preventive and health and immunity boosting activities.
Yoga & Naturopathy:
  • Practices of Yoga are reported to have originated in India and is now being adapted to correct lifestyle by cultivating a rational, positive and spiritual attitude towards all life situations.
  •  21st June is designated as ‘International Yoga Day’.
  • Naturopathy or the naturopathic medicine is a drugless’ non- invasive system of medicine imparting treatments with natural elements based on the theories of vitality, toxemia and the self-healing capacity of the body, as well as the principles of healthy living.
  • The common naturopathy modalities include counselling, diet and fasting therapy, mud therapy, hydrotherapy, massage therapy, acupressure, acupuncture, magnet therapy and yoga therapy.
Unani Medicine:
  • It was originated in the Arab world, though over a period of time it imbibed some concepts from other contemporary systems of medicines in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Persia, India, China and other Middle East Countries.
  • Unani medicine treats a patient with diet, pharmacotherapy, exercise, massages and surgery.
  • Originated in India and is amongst the oldest systems of medicine in the country.
  • It takes into account the patient, his/her surroundings, age, sex, race, habitat, diet, appetite, physical condition etc. to arrive at the diagnosis.
  • Siddha System uses minerals, metals and alloys and drugs and inorganic compounds to treat the patients.
  • Unlike most T&CM, this system is largely therapeutic in nature.
  • Siddha literature is in Tamil and it is practiced largely in Tamil speaking part of India.
  • The word ‘Homeopathy’ is derived from the Greek words, ‘Homois’ meaning ‘similar’ and ‘pathos’ means ‘suffering’.
  • It originated in Germany and was introduced in India around 1810-1839.
  • It uses highly individualized remedies selected to address specific symptoms or symptom profiles.
  • It is practiced in many countries and in India, where it is the second most popular system of medicine.
  • The word combination means the ‘science of healing’ and is considered one of the oldest living and well-documented medical traditions of the world.
  • It originated from Tibet and is widely practiced in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Mongolia and Russia.


Focus: GS III- Indian Economy

Why in News?

Civil Aviation Minister inaugurated greenfield Sindhudurg airport under the UDAN scheme

About Ude Desh Ka Aam Naagrik (UDAN):

Nodal:  Ministry of Civil Aviation (MoCA)

  • It is an innovative scheme to develop the regional aviation market.
  • The objective of scheme is to create affordable yet economically viable and profitable flights on regional routes so that flying becomes affordable to the common man even in small towns.
  • The scheme envisages providing connectivity to un-served and underserved airports of the country through the revival of existing air-strips and airports. The scheme is operational for a period of 10 years.

UDAN 1.0

Under this phase, 5 airlines companies were awarded 128 flight routes to 70 airports (including 36 newly made operational airports)

UDAN 2.0

In 2018, the Ministry of Civil Aviation announced 73 underserved and unserved airports.

For the first time, helipads were also connected under phase 2 of UDAN scheme.

UDAN 3.0

Key Features of UDAN 3 included:

  • Inclusion of Tourism Routes under UDAN 3 in coordination with the Ministry of Tourism.
  • Inclusion of Seaplanes for connecting Water Aerodromes.
  • Bringing in a number of routes in the North-East Region under the ambit of UDAN.

UDAN 4.0:

  • The 4th round of UDAN was launched in December 2019 with a special focus on North-Eastern Regions, Hilly States, and Islands.
    • The airports that had already been developed by Airports Authority of India (AAI) are given higher priority for the award of VGF (Viability Gap Funding) under the Scheme.
    • Under UDAN 4, the operation of helicopter and seaplanes is also been incorporated.


Focus: GS III- Science and Technology

Why in News?

Secretary Telecom Inaugurates futuristic Quantum Communication Lab

About Quantum Communications

  • The Quantum communication is a field of applied quantum physics closely related to quantum information processing and quantum teleportation.
  • Its most interesting application is protecting information channels against eavesdropping by means of quantum cryptography.

 Above image shows the Quantum Communication through secure channel.

  • The Quantum communication boasts ultra-high security communication.
  • It uses subatomic particles to securely communicate between two points.
  • These subatomic particles are mainly quantum entanglement of photons.
  • It ensures that nobody taps into the line as a photon can be neither separated nor duplicated.
  • In case intruder (hacker) tries to crack the message in Quantum communication, it will change its form in a way that would alert the sender and cause the message to be altered or deleted.
  • Thus tapping the network will inevitably corrupt the signal.
  • It has the ability to inform the two communicating users of the presence of any third party trying to eavesdrop.
  • At the same time, the information being intercepted will self-destruct.
  • It holds enormous prospects in the field of Defence.
  • The China had successfully launched the world’s first quantum satellite in August, 2016, dubbed as Quantum Experiments at Space Scaler (QUESS) satellite.
  • It was nicknamed as Micius after a 5th century BC Chinese philosopher and scientist. 
Applications of Quantum Communication
  •  It will enable the space-to-Earth highly secure hack-proof quantum communication network.
  • The satellite will help to establish hack-proof communications system by transmitting uncrackable keys from space to the ground.
  • The Ranges from highly secured military and government communications to online shopping. 
  • This will enable the space-to-Earth quantum communication network.
  • This is first of its kind satellite-based quantum network would make it possible to send quickly encrypted (hack proof) messages around the world.
  • It also opens door to other possible uses of the technology.


Focus: GS III- Defence

Why in News?

The Indian Navy (IN) would be participating in the Second Phase of Multilateral Maritime Exercise Malabar along with the Japan Maritime Self Defence Force (JMSDF), Royal Australian Navy (RAN) and the United States Navy (USN).


  • The exercise is being conducted in the Bay of Bengal from 12 – 15 Oct 2021.
  • First Phase of the exercise was conducted in the Phillipines Sea from 26 – 29 Aug 2021.
  • The Second Phase of the exercise would build upon the synergy, coordination and inter-operability developed during the First Phase of the exercise and would focus on  advanced surface and anti-submarine warfare exercises, seamanship evolutions and weapon firings.
  • The Malabar series of exercises, which began as an annual bilateral naval exercise between India and the US in 1992, has seen increasing scope and complexity over the years.
  • The 25th edition of MALABAR, being conducted in two phases, while observing all protocols during the COVID-19 pandemic, is reflective of the commitment of the participating countries to support a  free, open, inclusive Indo-Pacific as well as a rules-based international order.

November 2023