- SWACHH BHARAT MISSION
- AMRUT SCHEME
- NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
SWACHH BHARAT MISSION
Focus: Government policies and Interventions
Why in News?
The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister approved the continuation of Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) till 2025-26, with focus on sustainability of Open Defecation Free (ODF) outcomes, achieving scientific processing of Solid Waste in all cities, and managing Wastewater in cities with less than 1 lakh population in Census 2011 [cities not covered under Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)].
Swachh Bharat Mission
- Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) or Clean India Mission is a country-wide sanitation campaign launched on the day of Gandhi Jayanti, 2014.
- The phase -2 of SBM was announced by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi in February, 2020 i.e. just preceding the first COVID wave in India.
- The phase -1 concluded in October 2019 with grand declaration of the Nation as Open Defecation Free.
- The Phase -2 emphasizes upon the sustainability of achievements under phase -1 and to provide adequate facilities for Solid/Liquid & plastic waste management in rural India.
- Secretary, Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS),
- Ministry of Jal shakti with two Sub-Missions – the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) and the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban).
The Main objectives of SBM are:
- Elimination of open defecation,
- Eradication of Manual Scavenging,
- Implementing Modern and scientific municipal solid waste management and
- Bringing behavioural change regarding healthy sanitation practices.
Swachh Bharat Mission for Urban Areas
- The program includes the elimination of open defecation, conversion of unsanitary toilets to pour flush toilets, eradication of manual scavenging, municipal solid waste management and bringing about a behavioral change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices.
- The mission aims to cover 1.04 crore households, provide 2.5 lakh community toilets, 2.6 lakh public toilets, and a solid waste management facility in each town.
- Under the program, community toilets will be built in residential areas where it is difficult to construct individual household toilets. Public toilets will also be constructed in designated locations such as tourist places, markets, bus stations, railway stations, etc.
Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0
- The Mission will focus on ensuring complete access to sanitation facilities to serve additional population migrating from rural to urban areas in search of employment and better opportunities over the next 5 years. This will be done through the construction of over 3.5 lakhs individual, community and public toilets.
- Complete liquid waste management in cities in less than 1 lakh population – a new component introduced under SBM-Urban 2.0 will ensure that systems and processes are set up in every city so that all wastewater is safely contained, collected, transported and treated and no wastewater pollutes our water bodies.
Sustainable Solid Waste Management:
- 100 percent source segregation of waste along with functional Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs) in every city, with a focus on phasing out single use plastic
- Setting up of construction & demolition (C&D) waste processing facilities and deployment of mechanical sweepers in National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) cities and in cities with more than 5 lakh population
- Remediation of all legacy dumpsites, so that 14,000 acres of locked up land lying under 15 crore tonnes of legacy waste are freed up.
The above will be achieved through robust capacity building of ULBs and all relevant stakeholders, and intensified focus on citizen engagement through communication and advocacy, for further scaling up the Jan Andolan.
There will be special focus on well-being on sanitation and informal waste workers through provision of personal protective equipment and safety kits, linkages with government welfare schemes along with their capacity building.
Expected Outcomes under Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0
- All statutory towns to become at least ODF+
- All cities with <1 lakh population to be made ODF++
- Putting in place systems and processes so that all wastewater is safely treated and optimally reused and no untreated wastewater pollutes water bodies
Solid Waste Management:
- All cities to achieve at least 3-star Garbage Free certification
Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)
- The Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
- The mission aims to make India an open defecation free country.
- It seeks to improve the levels of cleanliness in rural areas through Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities and making Gram Panchayats Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitized.
- Incentive, as provided under the Mission for the construction of Individual Household Latrines (IHHL), shall be available for all Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households and Above Poverty Line (APL) households restricted to SCs/STs, small and marginal farmers, landless laborers with homestead, physically handicapped and women-headed households.
- Central Share (75%) from Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
- The State share will be (25%).
Focus: Government policies and Interventions
Why in News?
The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister approved the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation 2.0 (AMRUT 2.0) till 2025-26, as a step towards AatmaNirbhar Bharat and with aim of making the cities ‘water secure’ and ‘self-sustainable’ through circular economy of water.
AMRUT – Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation
- Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme that was launched in 2015, by the Housing and Urban Affairs.
- AMRUT aims to ensure that every household has access to a tap with the assured supply of water and a sewerage connection.
- The Priority zone of the Mission is water supply followed by sewerage.
- AMRUT also aims to reduce pollution by switching to public transport or constructing facilities for non-motorized transport and to increase the amenity value of cities by developing greenery and well-maintained open spaces.
- An Apex Committee (AC), chaired by the Secretary, MoHUA and comprising representatives of related Ministries and organisations supervises the Mission.
Components of AMRUT
- Capacity building,
- Reform implementation,
- Water supply,
- Sewerage and septage management,
- Storm water drainage,
- Urban transport and
- Development of green spaces and parks.
The reforms aim at improving delivery of citizen services, bringing down the cost of delivery, improving financial health, augmenting resources and enhancing transparency. It also includes replacement of street lights with LED lights.
- AMRUT 2.0 aims to provide 100% coverage of water supply to all households in around 4,700 urban local bodies by providing about 2.68 crore tap connections and 100% coverage of sewerage and septage in 500 AMRUT cities by providing around 2.64 crore sewer/ septage connections, which will benefit more than 10.5 crore people in urban areas.
- AMRUT 2.0 will adopt the principles of circular economy and promote conservation and rejuvenation of surface and groundwater bodies.
- The Mission will promote data led governance in water management and Technology Sub-Mission to leverage latest global technologies and skills.
- ‘Pey Jal Survekshan’ will be conducted to promote progressive competition among cities.
- The outlay of AMRUT 2.0 is around ₹2.87 lakh crore.
NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
Focus: GS II- Polity
Why in News?
Prime Minister attended 28th National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) Foundation day programme through video conference.
About National Human Rights Commission :
The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) established in 1993, is an independent statutory body as per the provisions of the Protection of Human Rights Act of 1993 which was amended in 2006.
- Human Rights are an indispensable part of society and Human Rights in India are watched by NHRC.
- NHRC acts as a watchdog of human rights in the country.
- NHRC looks over the rights that are related to life, dignity, liberty and equality of the individual that is defined in Section 2(1) of the PHR Act.
- They are guaranteed by the Constitution of India, embodied in the international covenants and are enforceable by the courts of India as well.
- NHRC was established in compliance with the Paris Principles of Human Rights, 1991 which were adopted for the promotion and protection of Human Rights and were endorsed by the United Nations at its General Assembly of 1993
The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) is composed of a Chairperson and eight other members.
Those eight members are:
- Four full-time members.
- Four deemed members.
Chairman of NHRC: Retired Chief Justice of India
Appointment of NHRC Members
- A Selection Committee will recommend the candidates to the President.
- The Selection Committee includes:
- Prime Minister (Chairman)
- Speaker of Lok Sabha
- Union Home Minister
- Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha
- Leaders of the Opposition in both Houses of the Parliament
Functions & Powers of NHRC
- NHRC can investigate any complaints related to violations of Human Rights in India either suo-moto or after receiving a petition.
- NHRC can interfere in any judicial process that involves any allegation of violation of Human Rights.
- It can visit any prison/institute under the control of the state governments to observe the living conditions of inmates. It can further make recommendations based on its observations to the authorities.
- NHRC can review the provisions of the Constitution that safeguard Human Rights and can suggest necessary restorative measures.
- Research in the field of Human Rights is also promoted by the NHRC.
- Human Rights awareness and literacy through different media are promoted by NHRC in various sectors of society.
- NHRC has the power to recommend suitable steps that can prevent violation of Human Rights in India to both Central as well as State Governments.
- The President of India gets an annual report from NHRC which is laid before both the Houses of the Parliament.
Limitations of NHRC
- The Recommendations made by the NHRC are not binding.
- Violation of Human rights by private parties cannot be considered under NHRC Jurisdiction.
- NHRC doesn’t have the power to penalise the authorities that don’t implement its recommended orders.
- 3 of the NHRC members are judges which give the functioning of the Commission a judicial touch.
- The other members that are recommended by the Selection Committee may not necessarily be Human Rights experts.
- The NHRC does not consider the following cases:
- Cases that are older than one year.
- Cases that are anonymous, pseudonymous or vague.
- Frivolous cases.
- Cases pertaining to service matters.
- The NHRC has limited jurisdiction over cases related to armed forces.
- The NHRC faces other issues like excess cases/complaints, insufficient funds, bureaucratic functioning style, etc.