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PIB – 13 September 2021

Contents

  1. Swachh Survekshan Grameen 2021
  2. Indigenous Coal Based Methanol Production
  3. Transport and Marketing Assistance (TMA)

Swachh Survekshan Grameen 2021

Context:

The Minister of State, Jal Shakti Ministry, presided over the e-launch of Swachh Survekshan Grameen 2021 under Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) Phase -II at an event organized by Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS).

Relevance:

Prelims, GS-II: Social Justice and Governance (Issues related to Health, Welfare Schemes, Government Policies and Initiatives)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About Swachh Survekshan Grameen 2021
  2. About Swachh Survekshan 2021
  3. About Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) Phase-II

About Swachh Survekshan Grameen 2021

  • Swachh Survekshan Grameen 2021 will be undertaken by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS) across the country. DDWS has commissioned the Survekshan Grameen in 2018 and 2019 earlier.
  • The 2021 Swachh Survekshan Grameen programme was launched with the aim of supporting acceleration of ODF (Open defecation free) Plus interventions and increase momentum of improving ODF Sustainability and Solid & Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) activities in villages. It seeks to achieve the goal of comprehensive cleanliness.
  • As part of the 2021 rural cleanliness survey, as many as 17,475 villages spanning across 698 districts would be covered.
  • Weightage to Different Elements:
    • Direct Observation of sanitation at public places -30%
    • Citizen’s Feedback -35%
    • Service Level Progress on sanitation related parameters -35%
  • Under this phase, a mobile app named “SSG 2021 mobile app” will also be made available in major local Indian languages. App will help in getting feedback from citizens and using it survey will be well monitored through frequent field visits.

About Swachh Survekshan 2021

  • The Swachh Survekshan 2021 was introduced by the MoHUA in the year 2016.
  • It was launched as a competitive framework in a bid to encourage the cities to improve their status of the urban sanitation.
  • It also encourages the citizens to participate on a large scale. In the year 2016, when this initiative was launched, only 73 cities with million plus population were grown. But in the subsequent surveys, the number of cities increased.
  • Since 2016, the cities are regularly filling their data and updating their progress in the MIS along with the other citizen centric campaign.
  • The Swachh Survekshan was laid down the spirit of healthy competition between the cities and towns of India.
  • The on-field assessments for the survekshan takes place in between January 4-31 every year. In the year 2021 it got delayed due to COVID-19 pandemic. The assessment will be conducted between 1-28 March 2021.
  • The framework for the survekshan is redesigned innovatively each year in order to ensure that this process becomes stronger. This in order to maintain the sustainability in the sanitation value chain, indicators for the year 2021 will focus on parameters like wastewater treatment and reuse and the faecal sludge. It would also be focusing on the waste management and remediation of landfills.

 

About Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) Phase-II

  • Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) Phase-II emphasizes the sustainability of achievements under phase I and to provide adequate facilities for Solid/Liquid & plastic Waste Management (SLWM) in rural India.
  • It will be implemented from 2020-21 to 2024-25 in a mission mode with a total outlay of Rs. 1,40,881 crores.
  • The fund sharing pattern between Centre and States will be 90:10 for North-Eastern States and Himalayan States and UT of J&K; 60:40 for other States; and 100% for other Union Territories.
  • Funding Norms for SLWM have been rationalized and changed to per capita basis in place of the number of households.

-Source: PIB


Indigenous Coal Based Methanol Production

Context:

India’s first indigenously Designed High Ash Coal Gasification Based Methanol Production Plant at Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) Research and Development Centre, Hyderabad was inaugurated.

Relevance:

Prelims, GS-III: Science and Technology, GS-III: Environment and Ecology (Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Conservation)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is Methanol and why is it a promising alternative fuel?
  2. About the High Ash Coal Gasification Based Methanol Production Plant
  3. NITI Aayog’s ‘Methanol Economy’ programme

What is Methanol and why is it a promising alternative fuel?

  • Methanol or Di Methyl Ether (DME) is a low carbon, hydrogen carrier fuel produced from high ash coal, agricultural residue, CO2 from thermal power plants and natural gas.
  • Methanol is a promising fuel as it is clean, cheaper than fossil fuels and a good substitute for heavy fuels. India imports methanol from Saudi Arabia and Iran at present. Across the world, methanol is emerging as a clean, sustainable transportation fuel of the future.
  • Methanol can be used as an energy producing fuel, transportation fuel and cooking fuel, cutting down India’s oil import bill by an estimated 20% over the next few years. Unlike CNG, using methanol as a transportation fuel would require minimal alteration in the vehicles.
  • Methanol is a clean-burning fuel that produces fewer smog-causing emissions — such as sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter — and can improve air quality and related human health issues.
  • Methanol is most commonly produced on a commercial scale from natural gas. It can also be produced from renewable sources such as biomass and recycled carbon dioxide.
  • As a high-octane vehicle fuel, methanol offers excellent acceleration and power. It also improves vehicle efficiency.
  • DME – a hydrated form of Methanol is nearly identical to diesel and could be used as alternative transportation fuel that is fuelled by exceptional burning characteristics and lower Green House Gas emission.

About the High Ash Coal Gasification Based Methanol Production Plant

  • State-run engineering firm BHEL has successfully demonstrated a facility to create methanol from high ash Indian coal.
  • The facility can create 0.25 ton per day (TPD) Methanol from high ash Indian coal using a 1.2 TPD Fluidized bed gasifier.
  • The purity of the crude methanol produced is between 98 and 99.5 per cent.
  • This in-house capability will assist India’s coal gasification mission and coal-to-hydrogen production for Hydrogen Mission.
  • The majority of worldwide methanol production is derived from natural gas, which is a relatively easy process. Since India doesn’t have much of the natural gas reserves, producing methanol from imported natural gas lead to outflow of foreign exchange and sometimes uneconomical due to excessive prices of natural gas.

NITI Aayog’s ‘Methanol Economy’ programme

  • NITI Aayog launched the ‘Methanol Economy Programme’ to reduce India’s oil import bill and subsequent reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions while converting coal reserves and municipal solid waste into methanol.
  • Methanol production and application will also generate close to 5 million jobs and blending DME in LPG annually can save Rs 6,000 crore
  • Blending of 15% methanol in gasoline can result in at least 15% reduction in the import of gasoline/crude oil. In addition, this would bring down GHG emissions by 20% in terms of particulate matter, NOx, and SOx, thereby improving the urban air quality..
  • Methanol Economy will also create close to 5 million jobs through methanol production/application and distribution services. Additionally, Rs 6000 crore can be saved annually by blending 20% DME (Di-methyl Ether, a derivative of methanol) in LPG. This will help the consumer in saving between Rs 50-100 per cylinder.

-Source: PIB


Transport and Marketing Assistance (TMA)

Context:

The central government has enhanced the scope of Transport and Marketing Assistance (TMA) scheme for specified agriculture products, announced Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

Relevance:

Prelims, GS-III: Indian Economy (Growth and Development of Indian Economy)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. About the Transport and Marketing Assistance (TMA) scheme
  2. About the Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT)

About the Transport and Marketing Assistance (TMA) scheme

  • The Transport and Marketing Assistance (TMA) scheme was launched in 2019, for providing financial assistance for the transport and marketing of agricultural products to boost exports of such commodities to certain countries in Europe and North America.
  • The Primary reasons for the implementation of the Transport and Marketing Assistance Scheme is to:
    • Provide assistance for the international component of freight and marketing of agricultural produce.
    • Mitigate the disadvantage of higher cost of transportation of export of specified agriculture products due to trans-shipment.
    • Promote brand recognition for Indian agricultural products in the specified overseas markets.
  • In the year 2018, the government approved an Agriculture Export Policy with an aim to double the shipments to USD 60 billion by 2022.
  • Under the TMA, the government reimburses a certain portion of freight charges and provides assistance for the marketing of agricultural produce.
  • The revised scheme has included dairy products among other agriculture products in its purview and increased the rates of assistance.
  • TMA would be reimbursed through the Regional Authorities of DGFT (Directorate General of Foreign Trade).

About the Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT)

  • The Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) is the agency of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  • The Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) is responsible for administering laws regarding foreign trade.
  • The Director-General is an Ex-Officio Additional Secretary to the Government of India. Normally a member of the Indian Administrative Service having rendered 30 or more years is appointed to the post of the Director-General of Foreign Trade.
  • DGFT provides a complete searchable database of all exporters and importers of India.
  • The Director-General advises the central Government in the formulation of Foreign Trade Policy and is responsible for carrying out that Policy.

-Source: PIB

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