- SHANTIR OGROSENA-2021
- HEAT WAVE
- JAL JEEVAN MISSION
Focus: GS III- Defence
Why in news?
Exercise SHANTIR OGROSENA-2021, a 10 day long multinational military exercise, which started on 04 April 2021, culminated at Bangabandhu Senanibas (BBS), Bangladesh.
About SHANTIR OGROSENA-2021:
- The aim of the exercise was to strengthen defence ties and enhance interoperability amongst neighbourhood countries to ensure effective peace keeping operations.
- The Armies of all participating nations shared their wide experiences and enhanced their situational awareness through robust information exchange platforms.
- The exercise culminated with a validation phase and closing ceremony organised on the theme of Robust Peace Keeping Operations jointly undertaken by contingents of Indian Army, Royal Bhutanese Army, Sri Lankan Army and Bangladesh Army, preceded by an Army Chiefs Conclave.
Focus: GS I- Important Geophysical Phenomena
Why in news?
Heat Wave Conditions very likely in isolated pockets over Rajasthan, Vidarbha and interior Tamilnadu
- A heat wave is a period of abnormally high temperatures, more than the normal maximum temperature that occurs during the summer season in the North-Western and South Central parts of India.
- Heat waves typically occur between March and June, and in some rare cases even extend till July.
- Higher daily peak temperatures and longer, more intense heat waves are becoming increasingly frequent globally due to climate change.
Criteria for Heat Waves
- The heat wave is considered when the maximum temperature of a station reaches at least 40°C for Plains and at least 30°C for Hilly regions.
- If the normal maximum temperature of a station is less than or equal to 40°C, then an increase of 5°C to 6°C from the normal temperature is considered to be heat wave condition.
- Further, an increase of 7°C or more from the normal temperature is considered as severe heat wave condition.
- If the normal maximum temperature of a station is more than 40°C, then an increase of 4°C to 5°C from the normal temperature is considered to be heat wave condition. Further, an increase of 6°C or more is considered as severe heat wave condition.
- Additionally, if the actual maximum temperature remains 45°C or more irrespective of normal maximum temperature, a heat wave is declared.
- The health impacts of Heat Waves typically involve dehydration, heat cramps, heat exhaustion and/or heat stroke.
- It also causes heat cramps, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps and sweating.
- The extreme temperatures and resultant atmospheric conditions adversely affect people living in these regions as they cause physiological stress, sometimes resulting in death.
Reasons why India is experiencing more heat waves are:
- Magnified effect of paved and concrete surfaces in urban areas and a lack of tree cover.
- Urban heat island effects can make ambient temperatures feel 3 to 4 degrees more than what they are.
- More heat waves were expected as globally temperatures had risen by an average 0.8 degrees in the past 100 years. Night-time temperatures are rising too.
- Higher daily peak temperatures and longer, more intense heat waves are becomingly increasingly frequent globally due to climate change.
- High intensity of UV rays in medium-high heat wave zone.
- Combination of exceptional heat stress and a predominantly rural population makes India vulnerable to heat waves.
JAL JEEVAN MISSION
Focus: GS II- Government policies and Interventions
Why in news?
Jammu & Kashmir presents its Annual Action Plan under Jal Jeevan Mission.
- J&K Aims at Covering All Rural Households under JJM by September, 2022.
- J&K had declared two districts i.e. Srinagar & Ganderbal as ‘Har Ghar Jal’ districts, wherein 100% rural households have tap water connections.
- The Union Territory of J&K has 18.16 lakh rural households, out of which tap connections are provided to almost 10 lakh households as on 31st March, 2021.
- In 2021-22, the UT plans to provide 4.9 lakh tap connections.
- The UT plans for 9 more districts as ‘Har Ghar Jal’ district i.e. every rural household will be provided with tap water connection.
About Jal Jeevan Mission:
Nodal: Ministry of Jal Shakti
- Jal Jeevan Mission, a central government initiative under the Ministry of Jal Shakti, aims to ensure access of piped water for every household in India.
- National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) was restructured and subsumed into Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) – to provide Functional Household Tap Water (FHTC) to every rural household with service level at the rate of 55 lpcd i.e., Har Ghar Nal Se Jal (HGNSJ) by 2024.
- Supply of water to all households is a basic necessity
- Reduction in water borne diseases which was due to due to consumption of substandard water
- Critical situation of Decrease in ground water table.
- Water demand and supply is a miss match
- Contamination of local ground level sources of water like, ponds lakes and wells.
- Sustaining the provision of water to all households is a challenge, not just starting it.