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PIB 16th September


  1. Launches at G20 Environment Ministers Meet
  2. Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda Bill 2020
  3. Written Reply regarding Initiatives in Defence Sector
  4. Written Reply regarding Atomic Power Plants


Focus: GS-III Indian Economy

Why in news?

  • The Environment Ministerial Meeting (EMM) of the G20 countries took place under the Presidency of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Global Initiative to reduce Land Degradation and Coral Reef program and two documents on climate change related to managing emissions and climate change adaptations under the G20 was launched at the meet.


  • India has been taking measures to enhance coral reef conservation (including the National Coastal Mission Programme) and India’s steps towards dealing with climate change have been remarkable.
  • India believes that Equity, Common but differentiated responsibilities, finance and technology partnerships are key pillars and India is walking the talk on Paris Agreement and its Climate commitments and India is taking adequate action to meet Paris Agreement goals.

Initiatives Launched

  • The Global Initiative on Reducing Land Degradation aims to strengthen the implementation of existing frameworks to prevent, halt, and reverse land degradation within G20 member states and globally, taking into account possible implications on the achievement of other SDGs and adhering to the principle of doing no harm.
  • The Global Coral Reef R&D Accelerator Platform is an innovative action-oriented initiative aimed at creating a global research and development (R&D) program to advance research, innovation and capacity building in all facets of coral reef conservation, restoration, and adaptation, and strengthen ongoing efforts and commitments made to enhance coral reefs conservation and their further degradation.

Click Here to read more about the G-20 grouping


Focus: GS-III Science and Technology

Why in news?

The Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda Bill 2020 has been passed by Rajya Sabha.

Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda Bill, 2020

  • The Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda Bill 2020 paves the way to establish a state-of-the-art Ayurvedic institution called the Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda (ITRA) in Gujrat and to confer the status of Institution of National Importance (INI) to it.
  • The ITRA is sought to be established by conglomerating the presently existing Ayurveda institutes at Gujarat Ayurved University campus Jamnagar.

This is a cluster of highly reputed institutions, namely:

  1. Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda
  2. Shree Gulab Kunverba Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya
  3. Institute of Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical sciences
  4. Maharshi Patanjali Institute for Yoga Naturopathy Education & Research

It is expected that the enactment of the proposal will further provide autonomy to the institute to develop patterns of teaching in undergraduate and postgraduate education in Ayurveda and Pharmacy.

  • The synergies among the different constituent institutions will help ITRA to demonstrate high standards of such education and to emerge as a lighthouse institution to the entire AYUSH Sector.
  • It is expected to provide the highest level of training of personnel in all important branches of Ayurveda including Pharmacy, and to take up in-depth study and research in the field of Ayurveda.
  • ITRA will be the first institution with INI status in the AYUSH Sector, and this will enable the institution to be independent and innovative in the matter deciding course content and pedagogy.


Focus: GS-III Internal Security Challenges

Opening the Defence sector to private participation

  • In 2001, the Defence Industry sector, which was hitherto reserved for the public sector, was opened up to 100% for Indian private sector participation, with Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) up to 26% both subject to licensing.
  • Under ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’ campaign of Govt of India, Ministry of Defence (MoD) has prepared a list of 101 items for which there would be an embargo on the import beyond the timeline indicated against them.
  • This would offer a great opportunity to the Indian defence industry to manufacture these items using their own design and development capabilities to meet the requirements of the Armed Forces in the coming years.
  • Since the launch of ‘Make in India’ in September 2014, several measures have been taken by the Government to promote indigenous design, development and manufacture of defence & aerospace equipment in the country under ‘Make in India’ by harnessing the capabilities of the public and private sector.   
  • Government is taking measures for modernization of the Armed Forces, through procurement of new equipment and upgrading of existing equipment so as to ensure that the Armed Forces are equipped to meet the entire spectrum of security challenges.
  • The modernization projects are progressed as per the approved Capital Acquisition Plans and in terms of the extant Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP).         

New Initiatives in Defence Sector

  • First batch of five Rafale aircraft has been inducted and operationalised at Air Force Station Ambala in 2020.
  • Short Service Commission (SSC) women officers are being considered for, and granted Permanent Commission (PC) in all branches of the IAF based on cadre vacancies, willingness, suitability, medical fitness and merit as per policies in vogue. 
  • Indian Naval Ships Jalashwa, Airavat, Shardul and Magar were deployed as part of Operation Samudra Setu to evacuate the stranded Indian Nationals from Iran, Maldives and Sri Lanka during COVID-19 crisis.


Focus: GS-III Industry and Infrastructure, Science and Technology

New Atomic Power Plants

During the last three years and the current year 2020, the Government has accorded administrative approval and financial sanction for construction of twelve nuclear power reactors – ten indigenous 700 MW Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) to be set up in fleet mode & two units of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) to be set up in cooperation with Russian Federation to enhance nuclear power capacity in the country.

Investment in Atomic Energy

  • There are presently twenty-two reactors in operation in the country.
  • In addition, nine reactors are presently under construction.
  • The Government has also accorded administrative approval and financial sanction for twelve more reactors.
  • The present policy (Consolidated FDI Policy of Government) puts atomic energy in the list of prohibited sectors.
  • However, there is no restriction on FDI in the nuclear industry for manufacturing of equipment and providing other supplies for nuclear power plants and related other facilities.
  • Government of India has amended the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 in 2015 to enable the licensing of Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL)’s Joint Ventures for setting up nuclear power projects.
December 2023