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PIB – 18 November 2021


  3. 6BIO



Focus: GS II- Welfare Schemes

Why in News?

The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs chaired by the Prime Ministergave its approval to the proposals of Department of Rural Development, Ministry of Rural Development for continuation of Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana-I and II upto September, 2022 for completion of balance road and bridge works.

  • The CCEA also approved continuation of Road Connectivity Project for Left Wing Extremism Affected Areas (RCPLWEA) upto March, 2023.

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)

  • The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) is a nationwide plan in India to provide good all-weather road connectivity to unconnected villages.
  • This Centrally Sponsored Scheme was introduced in 2000.
  • The PMGSY is under the authority of the Ministry of Rural Development.

PMGSY – Phase I

PMGSY – Phase I was launched in 2000 as a 100 % centrally sponsored scheme with an objective to provide single all-weather road connectivity to eligible unconnected habitation of designated population size for overall socio-economic development of the areas.

PMGSY – Phase II

  • The Phase II of PMGSY was approved in 2013, and while the ongoing PMGSY – I continued – under PMGSY phase II, the roads already built for village connectivity was to be upgraded to enhance rural infrastructure.
  • For the 12th Five Year Plan period a target of 50,000 Km length under PMGSY-II. 75 per cent of the cost of the upgradation was by the Centre and 25 per cent by the state.
  • For hill states, desert areas, Schedule V areas and Naxal-affected districts, 90 per cent of cost was borne by the Centre.


  • The Phase III was approved by the Cabinet in 2019.
  • It involves consolidation of Through Routes and Major Rural Links connecting habitations to Gramin Agricultural Markets (GrAMs), Higher Secondary Schools and Hospitals.
  • Under the PMGSY-III Scheme, it is proposed to consolidate 1,25,000 Km road length in the States, and the duration of the scheme is 2019-20 to 2024-25.
  • The funds would be shared in the ratio of 60:40 between the Centre and State for all States except for 8 North Eastern and 3 Himalayan States (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand) for which it is 90:10.

Road Connectivity Project for Left Wing Extremism Affected Areas

  • Launched in 2016 for construction/upgradation of 5,412 Km road length and 126 bridges of strategic importance in 44 districts in 9 states, viz. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Telangana and Uttar Pradesh, with an outlay of Rs. 11,725 crore.
  • Implementation period: 2016-17 to 2019-20
  • Road and bridge works to be taken up under the scheme have been identified by the Ministry of Home Affairs in consultation with states and security forces.
  • 10,231 Km road length and bridges sanctioned under the scheme so far with an outlay of Rs. 9,822 crore, including the additional proposals recommended by MHA subsequently.
  • 4,490 Km road length and 105 bridges have already been completed.
  • Balance projects and additional projects of around 1,887 Km, which are yet to be sanctioned, are targeted for completion within the proposed extended period, i.e. upto March, 2023.


Focus: GS III- Science and technology

Why in News?

The Vice President suggested to ISRO to give a thrust to the indigenously-developed regional navigation satellite system, NaVIC for global use.

About Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System

  • IRNSS is an independent regional navigation satellite system developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
  • The main objective is to provide reliable position, navigation and timing services over India and its neighbourhood.
  • It works just like the established and popular U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) but within a 1,500-km radius over the sub-continent.
  • IRNSS is a regional and not a global navigation system.
  • Unlike the widely used GPS which includes 24 satellites, NavIC has 8 satellites and their range is within India and its adjoining regions extending up to 1,500 km from the country’s border.
  • Technically satellite systems with more satellites provide more accurate positioning information. However, compared to GPS which has a position accuracy of 20-30 metres, the NavIC is able to pinpoint location to an estimated accuracy of under 20 metres.
  • The IRNSS constellation was named as “NavIC” (Navigation with Indian Constellation) by the Prime Minister.
Potential Uses:
  • Terrestrial, aerial and marine navigation;
  • Disaster management;
  • Vehicle tracking and fleet management (especially for mining and transportation sector);
  • Integration with mobile phones;
  • Precise timing (as for ATMs and power grids);
  • Mapping and geodetic data capture.


Focus: Facts for prelims


  • A group of Indian researchers have developed a compound called “6BIO” that can provide a better method to treat Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
  • This is the first compound that has been proved in pre-clinical evaluation to have the potential for improving daily activities like learning and recollecting new tasks in patients with ASD/ Intellectual disability (ID).
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the major issues causing a tremendous burden to our society. Yet, it does not have an appropriate pharmacological or genetic method to treat ASD/ID.
  • Current therapeutics to treat ASD aims to alleviate symptoms such as epileptic seizures or sleep issues but not to treat the multiple problems of ASD/ID.
  • A major challenge in finding better therapeutics to treat ASD is the potency of the drug to help the patients to perform their daily activities with efficiency close to that of a healthy person. Achieving this is particularly difficult after a certain age, especially from the mid-childhood stages.
  • Patients with ASD still struggle to perform everyday activities without assistance from others as they are unable to learn and recollect new tasks.
  • Data from the current study indicate that 6BIO can help children with ASD learn and recall, be social, and alleviate other symptoms such as seizures or sleep issues. Thus, the compound, 6BIO, can be a better therapeutics option to treat ASD.
November 2023