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PIB 19th November 2020

Contents

  1. 15th G20 Leaders Summit 
  2. Water Conservation
  3. RuPay card
  4. Rani Lakshmibai
  5. Mission Purvodaya
  6. Spirulina
  7. Plasma Blobs
  8. REINVEST- 2020
  9. World Toilet Day
  10. Safaimitra Suraksha Challenge
  11. Input Tax Credit
  12. New Development Bank(NDB)
  13. International Energy Agency
  14. CLAWS
  15. LAND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (LMS)

15th G20 LEADERS SUMMIT

Focus:  GS 2;Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Why in News?

At the invitation of His Majesty King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi will be attending the 15th G20 Summit chaired by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, under the theme “Realising the Opportunities of 21st Century for All” on 21-22 November 2020.

The meeting will be held in a virtual format.

G20 Summit: Showing the world Saudi Arabia's new face | Arab News

Please Click of this and Refer PIB 22nd Oct 2020 for detailed explanation about G20 Countries


WATER CONSERVATION

Focus:  GS 3; Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Why in News?

Vice President calls for a nationwide campaign on water conservation

About Water Conservation

  • The Water conservation includes all the policies, strategies and activities to sustainably manage the natural resource of fresh water, to protect the hydrosphere, and to meet the current and future human demand.
  • The Population, household size and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used.
KOC Water conservation Logo, image, download logo | LogoWiki.net
How to save water in daily life | By Cross Barriers

Importance of Water Conservation and Policies

  • The importance of water conservation and policies explained in the below attached image
L Me or water scarcity • estimated 
Physe.al water scucity • Ecornnc water scarcity 
Water Shortage 
1.2 billion people all over the world 
live without clean drinking water, 
Data in 2.6 billion people without sanitary 
millions 
facilities 
physical 
water scarcity 
n 
o. 
WHO estimated that by 2025, around 180 crores 
population will suffer with scarcity of water. 
According to falkanmark water stress indicator, 
when annual water supplies drop below 1 ,700 
cubic metres per person per year, then that regio 
is experiencing 'water stress'. 
Water shortage is between 1 ,700 to 1 ,900 
m3/person/year 
water scarcity is below 1 ,OOO m3/person/year. In 
2006, about 700 million people in 43 countries 
were living below 1,700m3/person/year. 
the water crisis has occurred because of a lack of 
property rights, government regulations and 
subsidies in the water sector. 
• The only controllable factor to cut the issues is g 
management and conserving water by implementin 
good policies to lift water scarcity level more than 
1 , 700m3/ person/year
  • To start, we all use water for drinking, washing, cleaning, cooking, and growing food making it our most precious resource for survival, what adds to that daily household water use, is that even more water is used by industry to generate electricity, manufacture products, and transport people and goods, as shown in the below image how to use Water smartly.
How To Save Water In Daily Life Essay | Cecmpw.veoknyuvo.info

History of Water Conservation in India

  • The history of water conservation in india explained in the below attached image.
In ancient days, people have practiced many water conservation methods to overcome from water 
scarcity. The following examples are given to understand the different types of water conservation 
methods in different regions 
Civilization/ 
r on 
Indus valley 
civilization 
(5000 years 
ago) 
Naneghat, 
130kms from 
pune situated 
in western 
g hats 
Western parts 
of rajasthan 
burhanpur 
(MP), 
Golconda(A.P) 
, bijapur(KA)an 
d Aurangabad 
Ancient parts 
of india 
Water conservation methods 
FAA/OUS FOR 
mczt sophisticated urban water supply and sewage systems in the world. 
IT'S FUNCTION 
It was well acquainted with hygiene and sanitation is evident from the covered drains 
running beneath the streets of the ruins at both mohenjodaro and Harappa 
FAA/OUS FOR 
forts having its own water harvesting and storage system in the form of rock-cut ciserns, 
ponds, tanks and wells 
IT'S FUNCTION 
A large number of tanks were cut in the rocks to provide drinking water to tradesmen who 
used to travel along this ancient trade route. 
FAA/OUS FOR 
forts, palaces and dwellings having rooftop water harvesting system 
IT'S FUNCTION 
Scanty, rainwater from these rmftops was directed into underground tanks 
væll next 
to drain at 
lothal 
Rock- 
aserns 
In • The 
Outlet from Which all 
the rainwater from 
into large 
FAA/OUS FOR 
Earthern pipes and tunnels 
IT'S FUNCTION 
Earthern pipes and tunnels are placed at undergrouM to maintain 
besides transporting it to distant places 
FAA/OUS FOR 
Water purification 
IT'S FUNCTION 
the flow of water 
brass vessels were considered good for storing drinking water, which now has been 
corroborated scientifically. Microbiologists affirm that water stored in brass containers can 
help combat many water-bome diseases.

The Traditional Water Conservation Methods in India

  • The Water conservation is a key element of any strategy that aims to alleviate the water scarcity crisis in India, with rainfall patterns changing almost every year, the Indian government has started looking at means to revive the traditional systems of water harvesting in the country.
  • The traditional methods are simple and eco-friendly for the most part, they are not just highly effective for the people who rely on them but they are also good for the environment, some of the traditional methods shown in the below attached image’s.
The knowledge of hydrology is deep rooted in the science of ancient India. Our ancestors applied the 
knowledge in water resource engineering. Every region of our country had its own water harvesting 
techniques, reflecting the geographical peculiarities and cultural uniqueness of different communities. 
water path 
Baoris/bers 
talabs 
jhalars 
johads 
Step wells 
kunds
The system involved construction of long lines of underground 
tunnels with vertical airshafts to tap the underground water flow- 
Burhanpur town (Madhya Pradesh). 
Concept of Oorani —south india 
The knowledge of hydrology is deep rooted in the science of ancient India. Our ancestors applied the knowledge 
in water resource engineering. Every region of our country had its own water harvesting techniques, reflecting the 
geographical peculiarities and cultural uniqueness of different communities. 
Pat system —eastern india 
Tank connected with Guiding 
Channels- himalayan region 
Inundation Channel- 
bengal 
Ahar-Pyne System- 
south bihar 
Water Distribution from Kuhl 
to Farms- westem himalayas 
Phad, kere in 
deccan plateau
  • Below image’s shows the water situation and ground water too in Indian states.
MORE THAN HALF 
THE STATES FOUND 
SEVERELY 
16 of 27 states studied scored 
below on the index. These 
16 Qates accwnted for 48% 
of India's population, 40% 
of the national agricultural 
produce, and 36% the 
national econcmic mltput 
STATES 
BY INDEX 
SCORE 
Gujarat 
Andhra 
Himachal 
Tamil Nadu 
Maharashtra 
Punjab 
Tdangana 
Uttarakhan d 
Tripura 
Kerala 
Assam 
Misha 
pududm•y 
Arur.achal 
Niti Aayog's management 
index scored states on nine 
indicators. including restoration 
of water bodies, groundwater, 
irrigation practices, sustainable 
farming, rural and urban water 
supply, and policy and governance 
High performing: 
Medium performing: 50-6 
Low performing: €50 
—.B For the indicator 
on groundwater 
Over-exploitation and 
recharging, Andhra 
Pradesh, Gujarat Tamil 
Nadu and Himachal 
Pradesh were the best 
performing states. 
Madhya Pradesh and 
Tamil Nadu saw the biggest 
improvement over last year 
On access to waterin 
urban areas, Madhya Pradesh, 
Gujarat, Goa, Himachal *adesh, 
and Uttarakhand achieved the 
highest score while Chhattisgarh 
saw the most irrwovement from tip 
previous year 
In treating wastewater, Haryana got 
the top score while Telangana saw the 
imprmernent in cptforrnarre
Inforgraphics & Mind Maps for IAS @ abhipedia Powered by ABHIMANU IAS

Government Indicatives for water conservation in India

  • The Government of India has approved Atal Bhujal Yojana (Atal Jal), a Rs. 6000 Crore Central Sector Scheme, for sustainable management of ground water resources with community participation in water stressed blocks of Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
No photo description available.
  • The Jal Jeevan Mission, is envisioned to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India.
Jal Jeevan Mission - INSIGHTSIAS
  • The National Water Policy is formulated by the Ministry of Water Resources of the Government of India to govern the planning and development of water resources and their optimum utilization.
  • Below image shows the some major water battles between states regarding its usage and control.
WATER LAWS AND BATTLES 
O No national (unified) law I 
Many countries like Israel, 
South Africa and Australia 
have national water laws 
Primarily, water is a 'State' 
e 
sutject in India I States free to 
deal with issues of water 
supply, irrigation and canals, 
and drainage embankments 
in their own way 
Centre can only regulate, 
develop inter-state rivers 
'D Absence of concrete 
regulatory regime leads to 
mismanagement of water 
resources 
Centre, however, assists 
states in conservation, river 
cleaning, building infra 
Centre can also deal with 
issue under Environment 
(Protection) Act, 1986 and 
Water (Prevention and Control 
of Pollution) Act, 1974 
Five tribunals are hearing 
river water disputes 
Ravi-Beas I 
Punjab, 
. Haryana & 
• Rajasthan 
Mahadayi I 
. Goa, Karnataka 
& Maharashtra 
Mahanadi I 
Odisha, C'garh 
.5 
Vansadhara I 
Andhra Pradesh 
& Odisha 
Krishna I Maha, K'taka, T'gana, AP 
. For cauvery, a tribunal has issued a final 
award and Centre has set up a panel for 
release of water as per orders. However, 
the two states still have differences on 
: several counts

Way Forward

  • The water is a major valuable resources not only for humans but for whole earth be it plants, animals , microorganism etc.,
  • As in one of the UN Sustainable Dvelopment Goals also pledged to save water i.e. SDG 6 Clean water and Sanitation and india wants to achieve it through various initiatives.
  • The future of India’s environment lies in its cities. As India rapidly urbanizes, cities will be at the forefront both for India’s growth and for sustainability.
  • For cities to break away from the current vicious loop of flooding and water scarcity, nature-based solutions like restoration of urban watersheds and wetlands could offer solutions.
  • The water conservation is the need of the hour and it is the basis for the human life to survive.
the basis of Agriculture 
AZ-icu-tureis the basis of lie 
so, Water is lite
  • If water is not conserved properly the future situation will be like as shown in the below image.
Petrol 
Z60/ltr 
This may be the reality soon if we do not act now!

Ru-PAY CARD

Focus:  GS 3; Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Why in News?

Virtual ceremony for the launch of RuPay card Phase-II in Bhutan

About Ru-Pay Card

  • The RuPay is a domestic card payment service conceived and launched by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) on 26 March 2012.
  • It was created to fulfil the Reserve Banks of India (RBI) vision of establishing a domestic, open and multilateral system of payments.
RuPay 
RuPay» 
Product 
type 
Owner 
Country 
Credit Card 
Debit Card 
Contactless smart card 
Stored-value card 
Digital card 
anaratQR 
National Payments Corporation of 
India 
India 
Introduced 8 May 2014; 6 years ago 
Markets 
India 
Singapore 
Bhutan 
Maldives 
Saudi Arabia 
UAE 
Bahrain 
Myanmar 
Australia 
South Korea 
International by card reciprocal 
Tag ine 
u Pay_ 
-.0 Settl:-lgs to actv&te Windows. 
Website 
w»w.rupay.co.inr9
  • The RuPay facilitates electronic payment at all Indian banks and financial institutions.
  • The NPCI maintains ties with Discover Financial, JCB to enable RuPay card scheme gain international acceptance.
  • In India, 90% of credit card transactions and almost all debit card transactions are domestic, however, the cost per transaction was low with RuPay compared to foreign card schemes.
RuPay (@RuPay_npci) | Twitter
  • The Ru-Pay Card advantages as explained in the below image.
Digital India on Twitter: "Choosing #RuPay Debit card for  #digitalpayments.…
Ministry Of Housing 
and Urban Affairs 
Government of India 
conc 
RuPay» 
DEBIT& PREPAID

Extra Info

About National Payments Corporation Of India (NPCI)

  • The National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI)  is an umbrella organisation for operating retail payments and settlement systems in India.
  • It founded in 2008, the NPCI is a not-for-profit organisation registered under Section 8 of the Companies Act 2013, established by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and Indian Banks Association (IBA).
  • The organisation is owned by a consortium of major banks, and has been promoted by the country’s central bank, the Reserve Bank of India.
  • The NPCI was incorporated in December 2008 and the Certificate of Commencement of Business was issued in April 2009.
National Payments Corporation of 
India 
NPCI' 
Industry 
d 
SZion 8 
2C08: 12 
Mumlf. Indiam 
Key Ropie 
(MD & CEO)131141 
Ensiled 
Syste m 
Syste m 
Syste m 
• Immediate 
Clew-ing 
"'Oility 
Fir* real Switch 
Nuup seviæs 
We b site 
org]n$

RANI LAKSHMIBAI

Focus:  GS 1;Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present significant events, personalities, issues.

Why in News?

PM pays tributes to Rani Lakshmibai on her Jayanti

About Rani Lakshmibai

  • The Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi, was an Indian queen of the Maratha princely state of Jhansi in North India currently present in Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • She was one of the leading figures of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and became a symbol of resistance to the British Raj for Indian nationalists.
  • When Growing up with Nana Sahib and Tatya Tope, she got training in martial arts, sword fighting and horse riding and became proficient in them. She was more independent than other girls of her age, due to her unconventional upbringing.
  • The Rani Lakshmibai was one of the brave warriors of India’s struggle for Independence.
  • In 1853, when the Maharaja of Jhansi died, the East India Company took advantage of the situation and applied the Doctrine of Lapse to annex Jhansi.
  • The Lakshmibai fought bravely against the British and gave a tough fight to Sir Hugh Rose so as to save her empire from annexation. She died fighting on the battlefield on June 17, 1858.
  • When the Indian National Army started its first female unit (in 1943), it was named after the valiant queen of Jhansi.
Jhnå&hlsi ki Rani 
Bom : 19 November 1828 
Died : 18 June 1858 
One of India's Most Iconic 
Freedom Fighters 
• She was married to the Maharaja of 
Jhansi, Raja Gangadhar Newalkar, 
in May 1842. 
• Refused to accept the 'Doctrine of 
Lapse' imposed by the British 
Government. 
• One of the leading warriors of the 
Indian Rebellion of 1857. 
• Bravely fought against the British 
force and kept them at bay till 
she breathed her last. 
If defeated and killed on the 
field of battle, we shall surely 
earn eternal glory & salvation.
ة به م 
٥ م- ف 
حه / ه حه حد 
ه e Y

Extra Info

About Doctrine of Lapse

  • It was an annexation policy followed widely by Lord Dalhousie when he was India’s Governor-General from 1848 to 1856.
Lord Dalhousie 1848-1856 Iasmania - Civil Services Preparation Online !  UPSC & IAS Study Material | Lord, Indian history, Ias study material
  • According to this, any princely state that was under the direct or indirect control of the East India Company where the ruler did not have a legal male heir would be annexed by the company.
  • As per this, any adopted son of the Indian ruler could not be proclaimed as heir to the kingdom.
  • By applying the doctrine of lapse, Dalhousie annexed the States of:
  1. Satara (1848 A.D.),
  2. Jaitpur, and Sambalpur (1849 A.D.),
  3. Baghat (1850 A.D.),
  4. Udaipur (1852 A.D.),
  5. Jhansi (1853 A.D.), and
  6. Nagpur (1854 A.D.)

MISSION PURVODAYA

Focus:  GS 3;Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

Why in News?

Mission Purvodaya will drive eastern India towards self-reliance and contribute to making of an Aatmanirbhar Bharat, says Shri Dharmendra Pradhan at AGM of Merchants Chamber of Commerce and Industry

About Mission Purvodaya

  • It was launched in 2020 for the accelerated development of eastern India through the establishment of an integrated steel hub in Kolkata, West Bengal.
  • The focus will be on eastern states of India (Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal) and northern part of Andhra Pradesh which collectively hold ~80% of the country’s iron ore, ~100% of coking coal and significant portion of chromite, bauxite and dolomite reserves.
Dharmendra Pradhan on Twitter: "Mission Purvodaya in Steel sector envisages  creation of an eastern steel hub which will contribute to eastern India-led  national development. #1YearOfModi2… https://t.co/z25iql44vW
  • The Integrated Steel Hub would focus on 3 key elements as follows:
  1. Capacity addition through easing the setup of Greenfield steel plants.
  2. Development of steel clusters near integrated steel plants as well as demand centres.
  3. Transformation of logistics and utilities infrastructure which would change the socio-economic landscape in the East.
  • The objective of this hub would be to enable swift capacity addition and improve overall competitiveness of steel producers both in terms of cost and quality.
purvodaya-hashtag på Twitter
  • The Steel is a product of large and technologically complex industry having strong forward and backward linkages in terms of material flows and income generation. It is also one of the most important products of the modern world and of strategic importance to any industrial nation.
  • About the National Steel Policy 2017 as explained in the below images its features etc.,
National Steel Policy, 2017 (NSP) to Enhance Domestic Consumption &  Production – SmartPrep.in
  • The policy projects crude steel capacity of 300 million tonnes (MT), production of 255 MT and a robust finished steel per capita consumption of 158 Kgs by 2030-31, as against the current consumption of 61 Kgs.
parliamentquestion hashtag on Twitter

SPIRULINA

Focus:  GS 3; Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

Why in News?

Smart injectable hydrogel from spirulina can help rapid recovery in internal injuries and in diabetic patients: INST Scientists

About Spirulina

  • The Spirulina is an organism that grows in both fresh and saltwater.
Is algae like spirulina healthy and safe to eat? | Well+Good
  • It is a type of cyanobacteria, which is a family of single-celled microbes that are often referred to as blue-green algae.
  • It is used as a dietary supplement or whole food.
Set Of Spirulina Algae Infographics Banner. Arthrospira Seaweed.. Royalty  Free Cliparts, Vectors, And Stock Illustration. Image 65654488.
Set of spirulina algae infographics banner. Arthrospira seaweed dietary supplement background template. Superfood vector illustration
  • It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture, aquarium, and poultry industries.
  • Just like plants, cyanobacteria can produce energy from sunlight via a process called photosynthesis.
  • In the below image shows the health benefits of spirulina.
ho Health Benefits of... 
SPIRULINA 
1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
Protects from Medicine Bi-products 
FULL of Vitamins & Minerals 
Great for Cell Regeneration 
Great Protein Source 
Easily Digestible 
SUPERFOOD!I 
Anti-Fungal 
Anti-Aging 
Fights 9ancer 
10. Anti-Bacterial
  • Below are the few disadvantages of Spirulina they are as follows
  1. Heavy metals
  2. Phenylketonuria characterized by which deficiency in the enzyme that metabolizes phenylalanine.
  3. Drug Interaction
  4. Worsening of Auto Immune Disease.
  5. As they are rich in chlorophyll which are not advised for human consumption.
  6. There is a lot of risk of contamination during growth

PLASMA BLOBS

Focus:  GS 3; Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

Why in News?

Solar Physicist’s study of plasma blobs after biggest solar flare of the decade could shed light on mechanism of such flares

About Blob in Physics

  • In magnetic confinement devices for fusion , a large fraction of plasma particles and energy is efficiently transported across a confining magnetic field in the form of blobs .
  • These are coherent structures of enhanced plasma pressure relative to the background plasma, which have a filamentary structure, as they typically extend much further along the magnetic field than perpendicular to it.
  • The Blobs are universally observed in the edge of virtually all magnetized laboratory plasmas.

Above image of A Twisting Blob of Plasma, A twisted blob of solar material a hot, charged gas called plasma can be seen erupting off the side of the sun.


REINVEST- 2020

Focus:  GS 3;Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

Why in News?

The Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi will inaugurate the virtual 3rd Global Renewable Energy Investment Meeting and Expo (RE-INVEST 2020).

About 3rd Global Renewable Energy Investment Meeting and Expo (RE-INVEST 2020)

  • The 3rd Global RE-INVEST Renewable Energy Investors Meet & Expo, organised by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) Government of India, will be held from 26 – 28 November 2020 on a Virtual Platform.
3rd GLOBAL 
"-INVEST 
26-28 NOVEMBER 2020. NEW INDIA
  • The RE-INVEST 2020, themed ‘Innovations for Sustainable Energy Transition’ aims to accelerate the worldwide effort to scale up development and deployment of renewable energy and connect the global investment community with Indian energy stakeholders.
  • It will feature a 3-day conference on renewables and future energy choices, and an exhibition of manufacturers, developers, investors and innovators.
  • The RE-INVEST 2020 is expected to be attended by over 75 international Ministerial delegations, over 1000 global industry leaders, and 50,000 delegates.
Image
  • The Minister also stated that the Government had taken a number of facilitative policy measures to ensure “ease of doing business” for renewable energy in the country, and to address any emergent challenges. RE-INVEST is also an step in this ongoing process which will inform about the Government’s plans and programmes and also foster engagement among industry, investors and other stakeholders to take forward India’s renewable growth story.

Extra Info

About PM – KUSUM Scheme

  • The PMKUSUM scheme was launched by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) to support installation of off-grid solar pumps in rural areas and reduce dependence on grid, in grid-connected areas.
  • It entails setting up of 25,750 MW solar capacity by 2022 with a total central financial support of Rs 34,422 crore.
kusum hashtag on Twitter

WORLD TOILET DAY

Focus:  GS 3;Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Why in News?

Jal Shakti Ministry celebrates World Toilet Day with Union Minister conferring Swachhata Awards on 20 best performing Districts and holding Sarpanch Samvad with Nine Sarpanches.

About World Toilet day

  • The “World Toilet Day celebrates toilets and raises awareness of the 4.2 billion people living without access to safely managed sanitation and is about taking action to tackle the global sanitation crisis and achieve Sustainable Development Goal 6  water and sanitation for all by 2030,” the UN website says.
World Toilet Day 19th November 2020 Theme - Swikriti's Blog
Sustainable Development Goals | Hilton Foundation

Above image of SDG Goals set by UN from 2015 to 2030


SAFAIMITRA SURAKSHA CHALLENGE

Focus:  GS 3;Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Why in News?

Shri Hardeep Singh Puri, MoS, I/C, Housing and Urban Affairs today stated that Government of India is committed to ensure that no person needs to enter a sewer or septic tank, unless absolutely unavoidable in the interest of greater public hygiene. Launching the Safaimitra Suraksha Challenge at a webinar in New Delhi.

About Safaimitra Suraksha Challenge

  •  The India still continues to witness over hundred deaths per year due to manual scavenging.
  • The initiative is in line with PM Modi’s vision, who has always placed the safety and dignity of sanitation workers at the core of the Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U).
  • The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act (2013) and various judgements of Hon’ble Supreme Court expressly prohibit hazardous cleaning, i.e. manual entry into a septic tank or sewer without protective gear and observing operating procedures.
THE TIMES OF NEW DECEMBER 6.2013 
Eradication of 
Manual Scavenging 
in India 
from Today 
Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers 
and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013 
Government Of India has accorded 'National priority' to elimination Of manual scavenging. As an urgent step, the 
Parliament has recently enacted the 'Prohibition of Employment ag Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 
2013' The Act shall come into force w.e.f. today, i.e 6th December, 2013 in whole of the country, except Jammu & Kashmir. 
HIGHLIGHTS 
Prohibition of insanitary latrines and employment or 
engagement as Manual Scavengers 
Offences 
(i) To constructor maintain an insanitary latrine; or 
(ii) Engage or employ a person to work as Manual Scavenger. 
Penalty for contravention 
(i) First contravenuon is punishable with imprisonment up to one year or with fine 
up to rupees fiftythousand or with both. 
(ii) Any subsequent contravention is punishable with years 
or With fine up to rupees one lakh or With both. 
Prohibition of persons from engagement or employment 
for hazardous cleaning of a sewer or a septic tank 
Penalty for contravention 
(i) First contravention is punishable with imprisonment up to two years or with 
fine up to rupees 2 lakh Or with both. 
(ii) Any subsequent contravention is punishable With imprisonment up to five 
years or with fine up to rupees five lakh or with both. 
Offences under the Act are cognizable and non-bailable 
Survey of Manual Scavengers in urban and rural areas 
To be conducted within a time bound framework. 
Comprehensive Rehabilitation of the Manual Scavengers 
within a time bound framework 
(i) Photo identity card to the Manual Scavengers. 
(ii) Initial cash assistance. 
(iii) Scholarship to the children of Manual Scavengers. 
(iv) Allotment of residential plot with financial assistance for mnstruction of 
house or a ready built house, within the framework of relevant Scheme. 
(v) Training in livelihood skill. 
(vi) Concessional loan With subsidy for taking up alternative occupation. 
Wii) Any Other legal or programmatic assistance. 
Monitoring Mechanism 
(i) Vigilance/Monitoring Committee 
District 
Sub-Division 
State 
Chairperson 
Vigilance Committees 
District Magistrate 
Sub Divisional Magistrate 
Monitoring Committees 
Chief Minister 
Minister Of Social Justice 
and Empowerment 
(ii) National Commission for Safai Karamcharis (NCSK) 
Construction Of adequate number Of sanitary community latrines in urban 
areas, within three years from the date of commencement of this Act to 
eliminate the practice of open defecation. 
The Act can be accessed at : http://socialjustice.nic.in 
Government of India 
Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment 
Department of Social Justice and Empowerment 
http://socialjustice.nic.in
  • Despite this, recurring episodes of human fatalities among those engaged in cleaning of septic tanks and sewers, typically belonging to the economically disadvantaged and marginalized communities of society, continue to be an issue of concern.
  • The Challenge will focus extensively on creating citizen awareness on this critical issue along with infrastructure creation for mechanized cleaning and capacity building of workforce. 
  • The actual on-ground assessment of participating cities will be conducted in May 2021 by an independent agency and results of the same will be declared on 15 August 2021.
  • The Cities will be awarded in three sub-categories – with population of more than 10 lakhs, 3-10 lakhs and upto 3 lakhs, with a total prize money of ₹52 crores to be given to winning cities across all categories.
आधिकारिक बुलेटिन - 2 (19-Nov-2020)श्री हरदीप सिंह पुरी ने 243 शहरों में सफाई  मित्र सुरक्षा चैलेंज शुरू किया(Shri Hardeep Singh Puri launches Safaimitra Suraksha  Challenge across ...

INPUT TAX CREDIT

Focus:  GS 3;Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Why in News?

The Arrest of a prominent Builder in a case of availment of fraudulent Input Tax Credit of Rs. 4.86 Crore on fake invoices


Please click on this and Refer 11th Nov PIB 2020 for detailed explanation of Input Tax Credit.


NEW DEVELOPMENT BANK (NDB)

Focus:  GS 2;Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Why in News?

Government of India & NDB Sign Agreement for USD 500 Million to Provide Fast, Reliable, Safe and Comfortable Public Transport System in The National Capital Region

About New Development Bank (NDB)

  • The New Development Bank (NDB), formerly referred to as the BRICS Development Bank, is a multilateral development bank established by the BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa).
New Development Bank - GKToday
new-development-bank - INSIGHTSIAS

Above image attached of NDB Bank explained


INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (IEA)

Focus:  GS 2;Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Why in News?

India has moved to the Centre stage of International Energy Affairs: International Energy Agency

About International Energy Agency (IEA)

  • The International Energy Agency (IEA) is an autonomous organisation which works to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy.
  • It was established in the wake of 1973 (set up in 1974) oil crisis after the OPEC cartel had shocked the world with a steep increase in oil prices.
PRELIMS BOOSTERS – 2018: Nilgiri Tahr and International Energy Agency (IEA)  - INSIGHTSIAS
  • It is headquartered in Paris, France.
  • The World Energy Outlook Report is released by IEA annually.
  • The India became an associate member of the International Energy Agency in 2017.
  • The Mexico officially became the International Energy Agency’s 30th member country in February 2018, and its first member in Latin America.
IEA members 
Australia (1979) —Austria 
E.) Canada. 
ece ( 
Ita 197 
Luxem 
Norway 
Agency under a special 
I Slovak Repub 
(2007) 
Switzerland 
France 
Belgium 
snmark 
Germ 
Ireland 
997) 
Polan 2 
Spain 
TUrkey (1981) 
United States 
2) 
ealand (1977) 
United Kin%do 
Estonia

CLAWS

Focus:  GS 3; Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.

Why in News?

The Army Chief Compliments Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) on Completion of 15 Years of Excellence

About Chief Compliments Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS)

  • The Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New DELHI, India is an autonomous think tank on strategic studies and land warfare.
  • The mandate of CLAWS covers national security issues, conventional military operations and sub-conventional warfare.
  • The CLAWS is registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 and is a membership-based organisation.
Center For Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS) – New Delhi, India
  •  It is governed by a Board of Governors and an Executive Council. Research at CLAWS is futuristic in outlook and policy-oriented in approach.
  •  CLAWS disseminate the products of its research to its members, members of the armed forces, decision makers, members of the strategic community and interested civilians. It also seeks to contribute to developing a pro-active strategic culture for India.
  • The objective of the organization is to convey policy recommendations based on interactions, consensus and research projects to policymakers and experts. CLAWS has been ranked 67th amongst World Top Defence and National Security Think Tanks as per ‘2017 Global Go To Think Tank Report’ published by University of Pennsylvania, USA
Centre for Land Warfare Studies 
Abbreviation 
Formation 
Type 
Location 
Director 
Affiliations 
Website 
CLAWS 
CLAWS 
14 January 2004 
Security think tank 
New Delhi, India 
Lt Gen (Dr) Vijay Kumar 
Ahluwalia (Retd_) 
Indian Army 
www claws.in

LAND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (LMS)

Focus:  GS 3; Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.

Why in News?

As part of efforts to improve overall management of defence land, for the first time a Land Management System (LMS) has been developed by Department of Defence in conjunction with DGDE and Armed forces.

About Land Management System (LMS) Portal

  • The portal is expected to bring in greater speed, transparency and efficiency into the  Land Management System (LMS) of the Department. With integration of GIS based tool, it will improve decision making process by removing duplication/unnecessary communication between various stakeholder groups involved in the decision-making process. 
  • The technical support for this GIS-based system has been provided by BISAG, India’s premier organization in GIS based informatics.
Land Management System (LIV 
by 
Rig 
Shri ath Singh 
ksha Mantri
  •  The software, apart from capturing the textual details of all proposals relating to defence management, integrates these textual details with Raksha Bhoomi software as well as other relevant GIS-layers which include satellite imagery of the area, other amenities etc.
  • The Intra-net portal shall digitize all requests of defence land management received by the Department in future. It is also in process of progressively capturing archival data into the system. All data for cases since 2016 have already been captured and are available in the portal. Progressively, data of prior period will also be entered in the portal which is meant only for departmental use and it is not open for the public.
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