- GHOLVAD SAPOTA
- FOREIGN CONTRIBUTION REGULATION ACT (FCRA)
Focus: GS III- Geographical indications
Why in news?
In a major boost to exports of Geographical Indication (GI) certified products, a consignment of Dahanu Gholvad Sapota from Palghar district of Maharashtra was shipped to the United Kingdom.
About Gholvad Sapota:
- The fruit is known for its sweet and unique taste.
- It is believed that the unique taste is derived from calcium rich soil of Gholvad village, Palghar District.
- Currently in the Palgahr district, around 5000 hectares of land is under sapota or plantation. Out of 5000 farmers who grow Sapota, 147 farmers are authorized GI users.
About GI Tag
- Geographical Indications of Goods are defined as that aspect of industrial property which refer to the geographical indication referring to a country or to a place situated therein as being the country or place of origin of that product.
- Typically, such a name conveys an assurance of quality and distinctiveness which is essentially attributable to the fact of its origin in that defined geographical locality, region or country.
- Geographical Indications are covered as a component of intellectual property rights (IPRs) under the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property.
- GI is also governed by the World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).
- In India, Geographical Indications registration is administered by the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 which came into force with effect from September 2003, this tag is issued by the Geographical Indication Registry under the Department of Industry Promotion and Internal Trade (DIPIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
- The first product in India to be accorded with GI tag was Darjeeling tea in the year 2004-05.
- The registration of a geographical indication is valid for a period of 10 years.
- It can be renewed from time to time for further period of 10 years each.
- The Geographical Indications Registry would be located at Chennai.
- Any association of persons, producers, organisation or authority established by or under the law can be a registered proprietor.
- Their name should be entered in the Register of Geographical Indication as registered proprietor for the Geographical Indication applied for.
- Karnataka has the highest number of GI tags i.e. 47 products followed by Tamil Nadu (39).
Focus: GS II- Health
Why in news?
10% – 12% of COVID-19 patients develop pneumonia.
- Pneumonia is a serious infection of lungs caused by various bacteria, viruses and fungi.
- It can be mild and sometimes even prove fatal.
- It affects people with weakened immune systems, older people above 65 years of age, infants and young children.
- Pneumonia can be bacterial, viral or mycoplasmic.
- Coughing with greenish, yellow and sometimes blood in the mucus.
- Shortness of breath
- Fever with chills.
- Loss of appetite
- Chest pain
Spread: Pneumonia is contagious and can be spread through coughing or sneezing. It can also be spread through fluids, like blood during childbirth, or from contaminated surfaces.
Treatment: Pneumococcal vaccines are vaccines against the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd
- Based in Pune, Maharashtra it is the world’s largest vaccine manufacturer by number of doses produced and sold globally.
- Vaccines manufactured by the Institute are accredited by the World Health Organization, and are being used in around 170 countries across the globe in their national immunization programs, saving millions of lives throughout the world.
FOREIGN CONTRIBUTION REGULATION ACT (FCRA)
Focus: GS-II Governance
Why in news?
The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has extended the validity of registration certificates issued under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010 up to 30.09.2021.
- The Foreign Contribution (regulation) Act, 2010 is a consolidating act whose scope is to regulate the acceptance and utilisation of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality by certain individuals or associations or companies and to prohibit acceptance and utilisation of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality for any activities detrimental to the national interest and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
- Foreign funding of voluntary organizations in India is regulated under FCRA act and is implemented by the Ministry of Home Affairs.
- The FCRA regulates the receipt of funding from sources outside of India to NGOs working in India. It prohibits the receipt of foreign contribution “for any activities detrimental to the national interest”.
- The Act held that the government can refuse permission if it believes that the donation to the NGO will adversely affect “public interest” or the “economic interest of the state”. However, there is no clear guidance on what constitutes “public interest”.
- The Acts ensures that the recipients of foreign contributions adhere to the stated purpose for which such contribution has been obtained.
- Under the Act, organisations require to register themselves every five years.
Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in India
- Worldwide, the term ‘NGO’ is used to describe a body that is neither part of a government nor a conventional for-profit business organisation.
- NGOs are groups of ordinary citizens that are involved in a wide range of activities that may have charitable, social, political, religious or other interests.
- In India, NGOs can be registered under a plethora of Acts such as the Indian Societies Registration Act, 1860, Religious Endowments Act,1863, Indian Trusts Act, etc.
- India has possibly the largest number of active NGOs in the world.
- Ministries such as Health and Family Welfare, Human Resource Department, etc., provide funding to NGOs, but only a handful of NGOs get hefty government funds.
- NGOs also receive funds from abroad, if they are registered with the Home Ministry under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA).