- Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Ji
- Long Period Average (LPA)
- Electricity (Rights of Consumers) Rules, 2020
NETAJI SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE JI
Focus: GS 1 ; The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country
Why in News?
Government decides to constitute a High Level Committee headed by Union Home Minister to commemorate the 125th Birth Anniversary of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose
About Subash Chandra Bose Ji
- Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) Ji was a fierce nationalist, whose defiant patriotism made him one of the greatest freedom fighters in Indian history.
- Subhas Chandra Bose was one of the most eminent freedom fighters of India.
- He was highly patriotic, fiercely intelligent and extremely passionate about the development & future of India.
- He was also credited with setting up the Indian Army as a separate entity from the British Indian Army which helped catapult the freedom struggle.
- He was famously called as Netaji because he led the country on the right path.
- Bose Ji was the Indian National Congress (INC) president in 1938 and 1939 attended in Haripura (National planning committee set up under Nehru) and Tripuri (Bose was elected but had to resign since Gandhi supported Pattabhi Sitaramayya. Instead, Rajendra Prasad was appointed) Respectively.
- Subhas Chandra Bose Ji was Selected for the Indian Civil Services (ICS) but refused to take up service since he did not want to serve the British government.
- Bose Ji joined the Indian National Congress in 1921.
- He was the President of the All India Youth Congress and also the Secretary of the Bengal State Congress.
- In 1924, he became the CEO of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation.
- In 1930, he became the Mayor of Calcutta.
- Bose authored the book ‘The Indian Struggle’ which covers the Indian independence movement from 1920 to 1942, the book was banned by the British government.
- He coined the term ‘Jai Hind’.
- He advocated complete Swaraj and was in favor of the use of force to gain it.
- He had differences with Gandhi and he wasn’t keen on non-violence as a tool for independence.
- His charisma and powerful personality inspired many people into the freedom struggle and continues to inspire Indians.
- Bose died of third-degree burns which he suffered in a plane crash in Taiwan on 18 August 1945.
About Subhash Chandra Bose Ji Role in Indian Independence Struggle and his Contributions
- The Bose Ji ideology tilted towards socialism and leftist authoritarianism.
- He formed the All India Forward Bloc in 1939 as a faction within the Congress.
- At the start of the Second World War, Bose protested against the government for not consulting Indians before dragging them into the war.
- He was arrested when he organised protests in Calcutta for the removal of the monument memorializing the Black Hole of Calcutta.
- He was released after a few days but was kept under surveillance. He then made his escape from the country in 1941 to Germany via Afghanistan and the Soviet Union.
- He had previously travelled to Europe and met with Indian students and European political leaders.
- In Germany, he met with the Nazi leaders and hoped to stage an armed struggle against the British to gain independence.
- He hoped to befriend the Axis powers since they were against his ‘enemy’, the British.
- He founded the Indian Legion out of about 4500 Indian soldiers who were in the British army and had been taken prisoners by the Germans from North Africa.
- In 1943, he left Germany for Japan disillusioned with the lukewarm German support for Azad Hind.
- Bose’s arrival in Japan revived the Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) which had been formed earlier with Japanese help.
- Azad Hind or the Provisional Government of Free India was established as a government-in-exile with Bose as the head.
- Its headquarters was in Singapore, the INA was its military.
- Bose motivated the troops with his fiery speeches. His famous quote is, “Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom!”
- The INA supported the Japanese army in its invasion of northeast India and also took control of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
- However, they were forced to retreat by the British forces following the Battles of Kohima and Imphal in 1944.
LONG PERIOD AVERAGE (LPA)
Focus: GS 1 ; Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
Why in News?
IMD releases ‘End of the Season Southwest Monsoon 2020’ report
About Long period Average (LPA)
- In India, the “average” rainfall or the long-period average (LPA) is the average of rainfall between 1951 and 2000, which is 89 cm.
- A normal monsoon is one when rainfall is between 96% and 104% of the LPA.
- Long Period Average (LPA) is the averages of rainfall received over a 50-year period between 1951 and 2001, this average comes to 88 cm of rainfall (according to recent change).
- LPA is considered to be the ‘normal’ rainfall in India.
- It is derived from the average rainfall from June to September across the country over a 50-year time period.
- Previously, the normal rainfall figure for India was 887.5 mm, which is the average amount of monsoon rainfall from 1951-2000.
- “Normal” precipitation does not equal “what you should expect.” “Normal” precipitation to a meteorologist is an average of the precipitation values over a 30-year period. Precipitation may very often be either well above or well below the seasonal average, or “normal.”
- Average annual rainfall is 300–650 millimeters (11.8–25.6 in), but is very unreliable; as in much of the rest of India, the southwest monsoon accounts for most precipitation.
- The rain gauge, an instrument that takes varying physical forms around the world and has evolved greatly over time, is what meteorologists and hydrologists use to gather and measure the amount of precipitation over a certain period of time.
Focus: GS 3 ; Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
Why in News?
60 percent rise in Leopard population across the Country; India now has 12,852 leopards. Increase in Tiger, Lion and Leopard numbers testimony to fledgling wildlife and habitat: Shri Prakash Javadekar
- The leopard is one of the five extant species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
- It occurs in a wide range in sub-Saharan Africa, in small parts of Western and Central Asia, a small part of European Russia, and on the Indian subcontinent to Southeast and East Asia.
- The Indian leopard is a leopard subspecies widely distributed on the Indian subcontinent.
- The species Panthera pardus is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because populations have declined following habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching for the illegal trade of skins and body parts, and persecution due to conflict situations.
- The Indian leopard is one of the big cats occurring on the Indian subcontinent, apart from the Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, Snow leopard and Clouded leopard.
- The Indian Leopard or Common Leopard listed in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and included in Appendix I of CITES.
- In 2014, a national census of leopards around tiger habitats was carried out in India except the northeast. 7,910 individuals were estimated in surveyed areas and a national total of 12,000-14,000 speculated.
- In Recent Survey in 2020 India now has 12,852 leopards as compared to the previous estimate of 7910 conducted 2014.
- More than 60% increase in population has been recorded.
- The States of Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra recorded the highest leopard estimates at 3,421, 1,783 and 1,690 respectively.
- India’s world record tiger survey also estimated the population of leopards and the tiger range was found home to 12,852 (12,172-13,535) leopards.
- They occur in prey rich protected areas as well as multi-use forests.
- In India, the leopard is found in all forest types, from tropical rainforests to temperate deciduous and alpine coniferous forests.
- It is also found in dry scrubs and grasslands, the only exception being desert and the mangroves of Sundarbans.
- It shares its territory with the tiger in 17 states.
- The geographic range of the Indian Leopard is in Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar and China.
- Recently releasing the Status of Leopards report in New Delhi , Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Shri Prakash Javadekar has said that increase in Tiger, Lion & Leopards numbers over the last few years is a testimony to the conservation efforts and of the fledgling wildlife & biodiversity of the country.
- The leopard has all the varieties and Indian Leopard varies wrt to African Leopard as shown in the below image.
ELECTRICITY (RIGHTS OF CONSUMERS) RULES, 2020
Focus: GS 2; Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
Why in News?
Union Government for the first time lays down Rights to the Electricity Consumers through “Electricity (Rights of Consumers) Rules, 2020”
About Electricity (Rights of Consumers) Rules, 2020
- Union Ministry of Power has promulgated rules laying down the rights of power consumers in the country.
- These rules shall empower the consumers of electricity and added that these Rules emanate from the conviction that the power systems exist to serve the consumers and the consumers have rights to get the reliable services and quality electricity.
- These rules are also an important step towards furthering the ease of doing business across the country.
- Implementation of these Rules shall ensure that new electricity connections, refunds and other services are given in a time bound manner.
- Wilful disregard to consumer rights will result in levying penalties on service providers.
- The Rules will benefit about 30 crores existing and the prospective consumers in the country.
- Stressing upon the need for awareness of all consumers especially in rural areas/villages.
- It is the duty of every distribution licensee to supply electricity on request made by an owner or occupier of any premises in line with the provisions of Act.
- It is the right of consumer to have minimum standards of service for supply of electricity from the distribution licensee.
- Maximum time period of 7 days in metro cities and 15 days in other municipal areas and 30 days in rural areas identified to provide new connection and modify an existing connection.
- No connection shall be given without a meter.
- In case of unplanned outage or fault, immediate intimation shall be given to the consumers through SMS or by any other electronic mode along with estimated time for restoration.
About Key areas are covered in the Electricity (Rights of consumers) Rules 2020
- Rights of consumers and Obligations of Distribution licensees
- Release of new connection and modification in an existing connection
- Metering arrangement
- Billing and Payment
- Disconnection and Reconnection
- Reliability of supply
- Consumer as Prosumer
- Standards of Performance of licensee
- Compensation Mechanism
- Call Centre for Consumer Services
- Grievance redressal mechanism