Call Us Now

+91 9606900005 / 04

For Enquiry

PIB 21st June 2021




Focus: GS III- Cyber security related issues.

Why in news?

National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI) celebrated its 18th Foundation Day.

Key Facts

  • NIXI the first Internet Exchange of the country facilitate peering of ISPs among themselves for the purpose of routing the domestic traffic within the country instead of taking it all the way to US/Abroad.
  • It resulting in a better quality of service and reduced bandwidth charges for ISPs by saving international currency on International Bandwidth.
  • NIXI is also the IN Registry managing India’s country code top level domain (ccTLD) – .IN.
  • NIXI also manages the National Internet Registry of the country delegating Internet Protocol addresses (IPv4 and IPv6) and Autonomous System numbers to the Indian Affiliates.
  • NIXI will provide a personalized e-mail with 10GB space to every .IN user.
  • This e-mail will be available on demand.
  • A user may approach NIXI website to get a free personalized e-mail.
  • This is perhaps a unique offer by any ccTLD in the world.

About NIXI:

National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI) is a not-for-profit organization under section 8 of the Companies Act 2013.

It has been working since 2003 for spreading the internet infrastructure to the citizens of India through the following activities:

  • Internet Exchanges through which the internet data is exchanged amongst ISP’s, Data Centers.
  • .IN Registry, managing and operation of .IN country code domain and .भारत IDN domain for India.
  • IRINN, managing and operating Internet protocol (IPv4/IPv6).


  • To Promote Internet through effective and efficient routing, peering, transit and exchange of the Internet traffic within India.
  • To Set up Internet Domain Name Operations and related activities..
  • NIXI is also credited with localizing internet domains and encouraging websites to register with the .in address.

Indian Registry for Internet Names and Numbers (IRINN)

  • It provides allocation and registration services of IP addresses and AS numbers.
  • IRINN is a division functioning under NIXI and provides allocation and registration services of Internet Protocol addresses (IPv4 & IPv6) and Autonomous System numbers to its Affiliates .
  • It is a not-for-profit, Affiliates based entity with the primary goal of allocation of Internet resources to its Affiliates.


Focus: GS II- India and its neighbourhood- relations

Why in News ?

India and Bhutan inked an MoU for developing cooperation between two countries in the area of environment. 

Key Facts

  • The MoU was signed virtually by Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change from the Indian side and Minister of Foreign Affairs and Chairperson of the National Environment Commission from the Bhutanese side.
  • MoU will open new vistas of bilateral co-operation in the area of climate change, waste management etc.
  • India wants to engage with Bhutan on environmental related issues including climate change.
  • MoU is a platform to further enhance Indian and Bhutanese partnership and support, exchange best practices in areas like prevention of Air Pollution, Waste Management, Chemical Management, Climate Change, etc.
  • It also provides the possibility to have joint projects in areas of mutual interest.
  • The MoU will also strengthen technological, scientific and management capabilities and expand the areas of cooperation in the field of environment to promote a mutually beneficial partnership between the two countries.

India and Bhutan

See the source image
  • The border is 699 km long.
  • Bhutan shares border with the Indian states of Assam (267 km), Arunachal Pradesh (217 km), West Bengal (183 km) and Sikkim (32 km; 20 m).
  • India and Bhutan share uniquely warm and special relations founded on mutual trust and understanding.
  • The India-Bhutan Friendship Treaty signed and ratified by the two countries in 2007 forms the basic framework of our relations.
  • India and Bhutan share a common perception of their strategic interests and cooperate closely on security issues and border management.
  • India is Bhutan’s largest trade and development partner and source of supplies of most of the essential commodities imported by Bhutan.
  • Development of hydropower in Bhutan has been the centre-piece of the bilateral cooperation.
  • India supporting Bhutan to prepares its people for the information technology age, it is reaching out beyond its traditional sectors of agriculture and hydropower.
Indo-Bhutan Treaty of Peace and Friendship, 1949
  • The Treaty provides for, among other things, perpetual peace and friendship, free trade and commerce and equal justice to each other’s citizens.
  • In 2007 the treaty was re-negotiated, and provisions were included to encourage Bhutan’s sovereignty, abolishing the need to take India’s guidance on foreign policy.
  • The updated treaty, besides providing close cooperation on national issues, provides for stronger cooperation in cultural and economic fields.

Bhutan’s Significance to India

Geographical Significance:
  • Bhutan shares border with four Indian States: Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal and Sikkim.
  • Nestled in the Himalayas, Bhutan serves as a buffer between India and China.
  • Security of Bhutan’s present borders especially its western border is very important for India.
Economic Significance:
  • Bhutan provides a market for Indian commodities and is a destination for Indian investment.
  • Also for India, Bhutan is a rich source of hydropower.
Political Significance:
  • A politically stable Bhutan is important to India. An unstable and restive Bhutan can provide a safe haven to anti-India activities and anti-India militant groups.


Focus: GS-III Science and Technology

Why in news?

A webinar ‘National Sickle Cell Conclave’ was held to mark the World Sickle Cell Day on June 19th 2020.

Sickle cell disease (SCD)

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder that causes “sickle” shaped red blood cells that can stick together, blocking blood flow and oxygen from reaching all parts of the body.

Normal Celt 
Sickle cell 

It results in an abnormality in the oxygen-carrying protein haemoglobin found in red blood cells.

Distribution of the sickle cell trait, 
shown in pink and purple

Sickle cell disease occurs when a person inherits two abnormal copies of the β-globin gene that makes haemoglobin, one from each parent. (A person with a single abnormal copy does not usually have symptoms and is said to have sickle cell trait.)

Sickle cell disease is inherited in an 
autosomal recessive pattern.

People with SCD can experience pain, anaemia, infection, and other serious health problems (also known as complications) that may require care by a healthcare provider.

November 2023