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PIB 24th December 2020


  1. Ladakh’s Tso Kar Wetland Complex
  3. National Consumer Day, 2020 


Focus:  GS 3;Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Why in News?

Ladakh’s Tso Kar Wetland Complex now a Wetland of International Importance. India now has forty-two Ramsar sites.

About Ladakh’s Tso Kar Wetland Complex

  • India has added Tso Kar Wetland Complex in Ladakh as its 42nd Ramsar site (which is Highest in South Asia), which is a second one in the Union Territory (UT) of Ladakh (Tso Moriri or Lake Moriri the first one).
  • The Tso Kar or Tsho kar, known for its size and depth, is a fluctuating salt lake situated in the Rupshu Plateau and valley in the southern part of Ladakh in India.
  • The primary source of lakes is glacial meltwater.
  • The Tso Kar Basin is a high-altitude wetland complex, consisting of two principal waterbodies, Startsapuk Tso, a freshwater lake of about 438 hectares to the south, and Tso Kar itself, a hypersaline lake of 1800 hectares to the north, situated in the Changthang region of Ladakh, India.
  • It is called Tso Kar, meaning white lake, because of the white salt efflorescence found on the margins due to the evaporation of highly saline water.
  • The Tso Kar Basin is an A1 Category Important Bird Area (IBA) as per Bird Life International and a key staging site in the Central Asian Flyway. 
  • The site is also one of the most important breeding areas of the Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) in India.
  • This IBA is also the major breeding area for Great Crested Grebe (Podicepscristatus), Bar-headed Geese (Anserindicus), Ruddy Shelduck (Tadornaferruginea), Brown-headed Gull (Larusbrunnicephalus), Lesser Sand-Plover (Charadriusmongolus) and many other species.
Salt lake pith 
camping & wildlife 
TSO {'oriri 
thigh-altitude la'ke 
 About Aim of Ramsar List and Wetlands Importance
  • The aim of the Ramsar list is “to develop and maintain an international network of wetlands which are important for the conservation of global biological diversity and for sustaining human life through the maintenance of their ecosystem components, processes and benefits”.
  • Wetlands provide a wide range of important resources and ecosystem services such as food, water, fibre, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood moderation, erosion control and climate regulation.
  • They are, in fact a major source of water and our main supply of freshwater comes from an array of wetlands which help soak rainfall and recharge groundwater. 

Please Click on this Link to read Detailed Information about Ramsar Sites and Important Wetlands of India under Ramsar Sites


Focus:  GS 2;Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Why in News?


About Mission Sagar-III

  • This Mission is part of India’s Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) assistance to Friendly Foreign Countries during the ongoing pandemic.
  • Mission Sagar-III is being undertaken in accordance with Hon’ble Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision of SAGAR (Security And Growth for All in the Region) and reiterates India’s position as a dependable partner, and the Indian Navy as the Preferred Security Partner and First Responder.
  • The Mission also highlights the importance accorded to ASEAN countries and further strengthens the existing bonds.
आधिकारिक बुलेटिन - 2 (10-May-2020)मिशन सागर (MISSION SAGAR)
About India Assistance to Vietnam as Part of Mission Sagar-III
  • Indian Naval Ship Kiltan arrived at NhaRong Port, Ho Chi Minh City as part of Mission Sagar-III. 
  • The ship will deliver 15 Tons of HADR Stores for the flood-affected people of Central Vietnam, which will be handed over to Vietnam’s Central Steering Committee for National Disaster Prevention and Control.
  • This assistance is reflective of the deep people-to-people connect between the two friendly countries.
  • India and Vietnam have a civilizational relationship that is over two millennia old.
  • India-Vietnam relations have grown stronger in recent times due to the vibrant economic engagement and growing convergence on issues of common interests.
  • The bilateral relations were elevated to a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership in 2016.
  • The current visit seeks to enhance maritime cooperation between the two Navies and will further bolster the strong bonds of friendship between the two countries and contribute to security and stability in the region.
  • On departure from Ho Chi Minh City, the ship will undertake a Passage Exercise with the Vietnam People’s Navy in the South China Sea from 26 to 27 December 2020.


Focus:  GS 2;Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

Why in News?

National Consumer Day, 2020 with the theme of “New Features of Consumer Protection Act 2019”observed

About National Consumer Day,2020

  • The Department of Consumer Affairs, Ministry of Consumer Affairs Food and Public Distribution virtually celebrated the National Consumer Day 2020 with the theme “New Features of the Consumer Protection Act, 2019” in association with the Centre for Consumer Studies, Indian Institute of Public Administration in New Delhi.
On this day, 
the Consumer 
Protection Act, 1986 
had received the 
assent of 
the President 
day provides an 
opportunity for 
individuals to highlight 
the importance of the 
consumer movement and 
promote the basic rights 
and responsibilities of all 
About The Consumer Protection Act 2019
  • The Consumer Protection Act, 2019 has come into effect from July 20,2020, replacing the earlier Consumer Protection Act, 1986.
  • A consumer is defined as a person who buys any good or avails a service for a consideration.
  • It does not include a person who obtains a good for resale or a good or service for commercial purpose.
  • It covers transactions through all modes including offline, and online through electronic means, teleshopping, multi-level marketing or direct selling.
  • The Six consumer rights have been defined in the act, including the right to:
  1. Right to Safety.
  2. Right to be Informed.
  3. Right to Choose.
  4. Right to be heard.
  5. Right to seek Redressal.
  6. Right to Consumer Education.
  • The central government will set up Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA)  to promote, protect and enforce the rights of consumers.
  • It will regulate matters related to violation of consumer rights, unfair trade practices, and misleading advertisements.
  • The CCPA will have an investigation wing, headed by a Director-General, which may conduct inquiry or investigation into such violations.
  • The e-commerce portals will have to set up a robust consumer redressal mechanism as part of the rules under the Consumer Protection Act, 2019.
  • The Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission (CDRC) will be set up at the district, state, and national levels.
  • The District CDRC will entertain complaints where value of goods and services does not exceed Rs 1 crore.
  • The State CDRC will entertain complaints when the value is more than Rs one crore but does not exceed Rs 10 crore.
  • Complaints with value of goods and services over Rs 10 crore will be entertained by the National CDRC.
ACT 1986 
NO separate regulator 
complaint could be tiled 
in a consumer court 
where the seller's 
(defendant) office is located 
NO provision. Consumer 
could approach a civil court 
but not consumer court 
District: up to 00 lakh 
State: 00 lakh to el cr 
National: above Cl cr 
No provision 
No legal provision 
ACT 2019 
Central Consumer 
protection Authority 
(CCPA) to be tormed 
complaint can be filed 
in a consumer court 
where the complainant 
resides or works 
Consumer can seek com- 
pensation for harm caused 
by a product or service 
District: up to el cr 
State el cr to cr 
National: Above elO cr 
All rules or direct selling 
extended to e-commerce 
Court can refer settlement 
through mediation


Focus:  GS 2;Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Why in News?

PM to launch Ayushman Bharat PM-JAY SEHAT to extend coverage to all residents of J&K on 26 December


  • The Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana Sehat (PM-JAY SEHAT) to extend coverage to all the residents of the Union Territory of Jammu & Kashmir.
  • The scheme will ensure Universal Health Coverage and focus on providing financial risk protection and ensuring quality and affordable essential health services to all individuals and communities.
  • The Scheme provides free of cost insurance cover to all the residents of the UT of J&K.
  • It provides financial cover upto Rs 5 lakh per family on a floater basis to all residents of the UT of J&K.
  • It provides for operational extension of PM-JAY to 15 lakh (approx.) additional families.
  • The scheme will operate on insurance mode in convergence with PM-JAY.
  • The benefits of the scheme will be portable across the country.
  • The hospitals empaneled under PM-JAY scheme shall provide services under this scheme as well.
About Universal Health Coverage (UHC)
  • Universal Health Coverage (UHC) includes the full spectrum of essential, quality health services, from health promotion to prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliative care and enables everyone to access the services, protecting people from the financial consequences of paying for health services out of their own pockets and reducing the risk that people will be pushed to poverty.
  • The Ayushman Bharat program, with its two pillars – Health and Wellness Centres and Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojna  is envisaged to achieve UHC.

Please Click on this Link to read Detailed Information about Universal Health Coverage (UHC)

Please click on this Link to read Detailed Information about Ayushman Bharat or AB-PMJAY

December 2023