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PIB 25th April


  1. Border Roads Organisation clears Rohtang Pass
  2. INST scientists find nanomaterials with enhanced biocidal activity
  3. UV disinfection trolley


Focus: GS-I Geography, Prelims

Why in news?

The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) has opened Rohtang Pass (13,500 feet above sea level) more than three weeks in advance after Clearing Snow.

Himachal Pradesh Government had approached BRO to expedite the snow clearance to facilitate return of farmers for starting cultivation and movement of essential supplies and to bring relief materials to Lahaul Valley in wake of COVID-19.

Border Roads Organisation (BRO)

  • The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) develops and maintains road networks in India’s border areas and friendly neighboring countries.
  • BRO is under the control of the Ministry of Defence since 2015.
  • BRO is engaged in road construction to provide connectivity to difficult and inaccessible regions in the border areas of the country.

Read More about BRO at:

(First article of 22nd April PIB)

Rohtang Pass

Rohtang Pass and Other Passes in Northern Himalayas Map
  • Rohtang Pass (elevation 3,978 m) is located in the state of Himachal Pradesh.
  • It is present on the Pir Panjal Range of Himalayas.
  • It connects the Kullu Valley with Lahaul and Spiti Valleys of Himachal Pradesh.
  • The Ravi river rises west of the Rohtang pass in the Kullu hills of Himachal Pradesh
  • It is the arterial road connecting Lahaul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh from rest of the country.
  • The pass was opened on May 18, 2019.

Read More about Important Mountain Passes in Himalayas at:

(First article of 12th April PIB)


Focus: GS-III Science and Technology

Why in news?

Scientists at the Institute of Nano Science and Technology (INST), an autonomous institute under the Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India have found a low-cost metal-free nanomaterial for visible light microbial disinfection which can be an alternative to silver and other metal-based materials.

Details and advantages

  • Apart from being biocompatible with mammalian cells, they have found carbon nitride quantum dots (g-CNQDs) to be efficient for visible-light-driven antibacterial activity.
  • The team has suggested it to be a viable anti-bacterial alternative to metal/non-metal semiconductors and expensive silver, thus making it cost-effective.
  • The g-CNQDs have the ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS).
  • The ROS rapidly interact and damage the immediately available biological macromolecules such as lipids present on the cell membrane or envelope and proteins present on the cellular surface, towards inactivation of the microorganism.
  • The dependence on visible light is also advantageous over regular ultraviolet mediated disinfection, which requires cautious handling of the UV light-emitting devices.


Focus: GS-III Science and Technology

Why in news?

Scientists have developed a UVC based disinfection trolley to fight against COVID-19 by rapid cleaning of hospital environment.

How does UV help and how is it better?

How UV Works Microbe DNA
  • UV light in the range of wavelengths between 200 and 300 nm is capable of inactivating microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, thus disinfecting both air and solid surfaces.
  • Often, chemical disinfectants are not enough to remove the bacteria and viruses found in hospitals and other contamination prone environment.
  • Rapid decontamination of the used patient-care beds and hospital rooms before admission of subsequent occupants is a major requirement in hospitals in view of the limited availability of beds.
  • Coronavirus is sensitive to UVC light, as in the case of other viruses and bacteria.
  • The germicidal effects of UVC irradiation with a peak intensity at 254 nm results in cellular damage of the virus, thereby inhibiting cellular replication.
  • Unlike chemical approaches to disinfection, UV light provides rapid, effective inactivation of microorganisms through a physical process.
March 2024