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PIB 25th January 2021


  1. Climate Adaptation Summit 2021
  2. “ AYU SAMVAD” Campaign
  3. Akash-NG Missile
  4. “KAVACH” and “AMPHEX-21”  Exercise
  5. National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT)
  6. Green tax


Focus: GS 3; Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Why in News?

Prime Minister’s address at Climate Adaptation Summit 2021

About Climate Adaptation Summit 2021

  • The Netherlands government will host an online international Climate Adaptation Summit (CAS Online) on 25 January 2021.
  • CAS Online will build on the advances of the UN Climate Action Summit by showcasing pioneering solutions to the climate emergency, and sustaining momentum through to UNFCCC’s COP26 in Glasgow in 2021.
  • As the world recovers from the COVID-19 pandemic, the CAS will deliver action and inspire change to help societies build back better.
  • It will aim to help realize the transitions required for a climate-resilient world.
  • The summit will have a significant focus on securing new investments to ensure that millions of smallholder farmers can adapt to the stresses of climate on food production.
  • The summit organizers have called for major new funding for agricultural research, expanded access to farmer advisory services, as well as expanded access to risk management and financial services.
About India’s Commitment at Climate Adaptation Summit 2021
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Monday (January 25, 2021) addressed the Climate Adaptation Summit 2021 and said that India is targeting 450 gigawatt of renewable energy capacity by the year 2030.
  • PM Narendra Modi Ji noted that the ‘Climate Adaptation’ is more significant today than ever before and that it is a key element of India’s developmental efforts.
  • India is promoting LED lights and is saving 38 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions annually.
  • During the Climate Adaptation Summit 2021’s address, PM Modi said that India is going to restore 26 million hectares of degraded land by 2030.
  • Modiji said we providing clean cooking fuel to 80 million rural households and connecting 64 million households to piped water supply.
  • PM said that India’s civilizational values teach us that importance of living in harmony with nature.
  • “Our ancient scripture Yajurveda teaches us that our relationship with planet earth is that of a mother and her child. If we take care of mother earth, she will continue to nurture us,” said PM Modi.
  • “To adapt to Climate Change, our lifestyles must also adapt to this ideal.
  • This sentiment should guide our way forward, he expressed.    


Focus: GS 2; Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Why in News?

“ AYU SAMVAD” Campaign (My Health My Responsibility)

About “AYU SAMVAD” Campaign

  • “AYU SAMVAD”(My Health My Responsibility) is one of the largest public awareness campaign program on AYURVEDA and COVID 19 PANDEMIC, organized by All India Institute of Ayurveda New Delhi, as envisioned & supported by Ministry of AYUSH. 
  • The main objective of the campaign is to create awareness through Lecture series to make common people aware about the theme “Ayurveda for COVID 19 Pandemic”.
  • This campaign ensures the uniformity of information through a structured PPT delivered to approximately 01 crore target audience across India through 05 Lakh lectures.
  • This campaign will be immensely beneficial in understanding the importance of Ayurveda & in the fight against COVID 19 & also for Post Covid Management.
  • This campaign will specifically focus on the Role of Preventive, Promotive, Curative and Rehabilitation in Management of COVID 19 through Ayurveda.
  • Campaign will monitor through State AYUSH Directors & NAM team.
National Ayush Mission (NAM)
  • The National Ayush Mission is a centrally sponsored scheme launched in 2014 by the Department of Ayush, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
    • The fundamental objective of the NAM is to promote the AYUSH systems of medicine through cost-effective services, boosting its educational systems, quality control of AYUSH drugs and ensuring the sustainable availability of AYUSH raw materials.
    • AYUSH stands for Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy systems of medicine.
    • The vision of the Ayush Mission are:
      1. Providing cost-effective and equitable AYUSH healthcare all over India by enhancing access to the services.
      2. Strengthening and revitalizing the AYUSH systems enabling them to become prominent medical streams in the country in the healthcare sector.
      3. Improving educational institutions that can impart knowledge in AYUSH streams.
      4. Promoting quality control of AYUSH drugs by developing quality standards and ensuring the availability of AYUSH raw materials.


Focus: GS 3;Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

Why in News?

Successful Maiden Test Launch of Akash-NG Missile

About Akash-NG (Next Generation) Missile Launch

  • DRDO conducted the successful maiden launch of Akash-NG (New Generation) Missile from Integrated Test Range off the coast of Odisha on 25 January 2021.
  • Akash-NG is a new generation Surface to Air Missile meant for use by Indian Air Force with an aim of intercepting high maneuvering low RCS aerial threats.
  • The missile intercepted the target with text book precision.
  • The launch met all the test objectives by performing high maneuvers during the trajectory.
  • The performance of the Command and Control system, onboard avionics and aerodynamic configuration of the missile was successfully validated during the trial. 
  • During the test launch, entire flight path of the missile was monitored and the flight data was captured by various Range instruments such as Radar, EOTS and Telemetry systems deployed by ITR, Chandipur.
  • The Multi Function Radar was tested for its capability of integration with the system.
  • The Akash-NG system has been developed with better deployability compared to other similar systems with canisterized launcher and much smaller ground system footprint.
  • The test launch was carried out by a combined team of DRDO, BDL & BEL in the presence of the representatives of Indian Airforce.
  • The Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) was an Indian Ministry of Defence programme for the research and development of the comprehensive range of missiles, Akash was one of the part of IGMDP.
  • India officially shut down the project on 27 February 2008.
Integrated Guided Missile Development Program(IGMDP) - Legacy IAS Academy
About Akash-NG Missile
  • Akash is a medium-range mobile surface-to-air missile (SAM) defense system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
  • The Akash New Generation missile system can target aircraft up to 50-60 km away, at altitudes up to 18,000 m.
  • It has the capability to neutralize aerial targets like fighter jets, cruise missiles and air-to-surface missiles as well as ballistic missiles.
  • It is in operational service with the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force.
  • The new Akash system can defend an area of at least 10 times better compared to any short range SAM and is capable of engaging up to 10 targets simultaneously.
  • The earlier variant has a maximum range of 30 km, while Akash-NG can strike targets up to 70 km.
  • Akash is India’s first indigenously designed, developed and produced air defence system.
  • It also is the cheapest surface to air missile ever produced in the world with supersonic powered intercept.


Focus: GS 3;Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

Why in News?

Joint Military Exercise in Andaman Sea

About “AMPHEX-21” and “KAVACH” Exercise

  • A large-scale tri-service joint amphibious exercise AMPHEX – 21 was conducted in Andaman & Nicobar group of islands from 21 – 25 Jan 2021.
  • The exercise involved participation of Naval ships, amphibious troops of the Army and different types of aircraft from the Air force.
  • The exercise was aimed at validating India’s capabilities to safeguard the territorial integrity of it’s island territories.
  • It also sought to enhance operational synergy and joint warfighting capabilities amongst the three Services.
  • The exercise involved multi-faceted maritime operations by synergized employment of amphibious assault ships, surveillance platforms, execution of maritime air strikes and complex manoeuvres at sea.
  • Airborne insertion of Marine Commandos of Navy and Special Forces of the Army, naval gunfire support, amphibious landing of forces and follow-on operations also formed part of the exercise.
  • Ex KAVACH for defence of Andaman & Nicobar Islands formed a part of AMPHEX – 21.
  • A joint intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance exercise under the aegis of HQ Integrated Defence Staff was also run concurrently to achieve Maritime Domain Awareness by employment of a multitude of sensors.   


Focus: GS 2;Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

Why in News?

Finance Minister Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman inaugurates the Chennai Bench of National Company Law Appellate Tribunal. Delhi Bench of NCLAT is now called Principal Bench


  • The National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) is a tribunal which was formed by the Central Government of India under Section 410 of the Companies Act, 2013.
  • The tribunal is responsible for hearing appeals from the orders of National Company Law Tribunal(s) (NCLT), starting on 1 June 2016.
  • The tribunal also hears appeals from orders issued by the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India under Section 202 and Section 211 of IBC.
  • It also hears appeals from any direction issued, decision made, or order passed by the Competition Commission of India (CCI).
Composition of NCLAT
  • The NCLAT includes a Chairperson, a judicial member, and a technical member.
  • It consists of a total of not more than eleven members.
  • The President of the Tribunal and the chairperson and Judicial Members of the Appellate Tribunal shall be appointed after consultation with the Chief Justice of India.
  • The Members of the Tribunal and the Technical Members of the Appellate Tribunal shall be appointed on the recommendation of a Selection Committee consisting of:
    1. Chief Justice of India or his nominee – Chairperson.
    1. A senior Judge of the Supreme Court or a Chief Justice of High Court -Member.
    2. Secretary in the Ministry of Corporate Affairs -Member.
    3. Secretary in the Ministry of Law and Justice -Member.
    4. Secretary in the Department of Financial Services in the Ministry of Finance -Member.


Focus: GS 3;Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Why in News?

Green tax to be imposed on older vehicles soon, to clean up the environment by phasing out unfit and polluting vehicles. Revenue collected through the tax will be used for tackling pollution

About Green Tax

  • A green tax is a tax that encourages people not to harm the environment or helps pay for things that are good for the environment.
  • Proposals to levy a green tax on carbon emissions will add to airline costs.
  • The central government on Monday approved a proposal to levy a “Green Tax” on old vehicles that are considered polluting to the environment.
  • As part of the proposal transport vehicles older than 8 years could be charged a tax at the rate of 10-25 percent of road tax at the time of renewal of fitness certificate.
About Green Tax recent development in India
  • The Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways Sh. Nitin Gadkari has approved a proposal to levy a “Green Tax” on old vehicles which are polluting the environment.
  • The proposal will now go to the states for consultation before it is formally notified.
  • The main principles to be followed while levying the Green Tax are Transport vehicles older than 8 years could be charged Green Tax at the time of renewal of fitness certificate, at the rate of 10 to 25 % of road tax etc.,
  • The Minister also approved the policy of deregistration and scrapping of vehicles owned by Government department and PSU, which are above 15 years in age.
  • It is to be notified, and will come into effect from 1st April, 2022.
Advantages of Green Tax
  • To dissuade people from using vehicles which damage the environment
  • To motivate people to switch to newer, less polluting vehicles
  • Green tax will reduce the pollution level, and make the polluter pay for pollution.

July 2024