- KAKATIYA RUDRESHWARA TEMPLE
- INDIAN SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING FACILITIES MAP (I-STEM)
KAKATIYA RUDRESHWARA TEMPLE
Focus: GS I- Ancient History
Why in News?
India today gets its 39th World Heritage Site.
- The Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple, Telangana has been inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
About the Temple:
- Ramappa temple, a 13th century engineering marvel named after its architect, Ramappa, was proposed by the government as its only nomination for the UNESCO World Heritage site tag for the year 2019.
- The temple complexes of Kakatiyas have a distinct style, technology and decoration exhibiting the influence of the Kakatiyan sculptor.
- The temple stands on a six feet high star-shaped platform with walls, pillars and ceilings.
- Built by Racherla Senapati Rudrayya, a general of Kakatiya king Ganapatideva, in the 13th century.
- The foundation is built with the “sandbox technique”, the flooring is granite and the pillars basalt. The lower part of the temple is red sandstone while the white gopuram is built with light bricks that reportedly float on water.
- Some of the iconography on the temple was damaged during the invasion of Malik Kafur in 1310. Treasure hunters vandalised the rest.
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a place on earth having a special cultural or physical significance and outstanding universal value to the humanity. This could be a building, a city, a complex, a desert, a forest, an island, a lake, a monument, or a mountain.
A listing on the world Heritage list means that these sites need to be protected for future generations to appreciate and enjoy. Italy is home to the greatest number of World Heritage Sites
World heritages sites of India:
|3||Agra Fort||Uttar Pradesh, India|
|4||Taj Mahal||Uttar Pradesh|
|5||Sun Temple, Konârak||Puri District, Odisha|
|6||Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram||Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu|
|7||Kaziranga National Park||Assam|
|8||Manas Wildlife Sanctuary||Assam|
|9||Keoladeo National Park||Rajasthan|
|10||Churches and Convents of Goa||Velha Goa (Old Goa), Goa|
|11||Khajuraho Group of Monuments||Madhya Pradesh|
|12||Group of Monuments at Hampi||Ballari district, Karnataka, India|
|13||Fatehpur Sikri||Uttar Pradesh|
|14||Group of Monuments at Pattadakal||Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India|
|16||Great Living Chola Temples||Brihadeeswarar Temple, Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Tamil Nadu, India|
|Airavateshwarar Temple, Darasuram, Tamil Nadu, India|
|Brihadeeswarar Temple, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India|
|17||Sundarbans National Park||West Bengal|
|18||Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks||Uttarakhand|
|19||Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi||Madhya Pradesh, India|
|20||Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi||Delhi|
|21||Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi||Delhi|
|22||Mountain Railways of India||Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (1999), Darjeeling, West Bengal, India|
|Nilgiri Mountain Railway (2005) Ooty, Tamil Nadu, India|
|Kalka-Shimla Railway, Himachal Pradesh (2008)|
|23||Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya||Bihar|
|24||Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka||Madhya Pradesh, India|
|25||Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)||Maharashtra|
|26||Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park||Gujarat, India|
|27||Red Fort Complex||Delhi|
|28||The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur||Jaipur, Rajasthan, India|
|29||Western Ghats||Agasthyamalai Sub-Cluster|
|Talakaveri Sub-Cluster (five properties)|
|Kudremukh Sub-Cluster (five properties)|
|30||Hill Forts of Rajasthan||Chittorgarh|
|31||Rani ki vav (The Queen’s Stepwell)||Patan, Gujarat, India|
|32||Great Himalayan National Park||Himachal Pradesh, India|
|33||Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda, Bihar||Bihar|
|34||Khangchendzonga National Park||Sikkim|
|35||The Architectural Work Of Le Corbusier||Chandigarh, India|
|36||Historic City of Ahmedabad||Ahmedabad, Gujarat|
|37||The Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai||Maharashtra|
Archaeological Survey of India (ASI)
Nodal: Ministry of Culture
- It administers more than 3650 ancient monuments, archaeological sites and remains of national importance.
- Its activities include carrying out surveys of antiquarian remains, exploration and excavation of archaeological sites, conservation and maintenance of protected monuments etc.
- It was founded in 1861 by Alexander Cunningham- the first Director-General of ASI. Alexander Cunningham is also known as the “Father of Indian Archaeology”.
INDIAN SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING FACILITIES MAP (I-STEM)
Focus: GS III- Science and Technology
Why in News?
I-STEM is an initiative of Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser to the Govt. of India (PSA, GOI) under the aegis of Prime Minister Science, Technology and Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC) mission.
- I-STEM project has been accorded extension for five years, until 2026 and enters its second phase with added features.
About Indian Science Technology and Engineering facilities Map (I-STEM):
- An initiative of Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser to the Govt. of India under the PM-STIAC mission.
- The goal is to strengthen the R&D ecosystem.
- Done by connecting researchers with resources in part by promoting technologies and scientific equipment development indigenously.
- Also by providing necessary supplies and supports to researchers.
- This will enable them to access existing R&D facilities through the I-STEM web portal.
- The portal hosts the database of facilities across India.
- Presently, the portal lists more than 25,000 pieces of equipment from 850 institutions across the country.
- It has more than 20,000 Indian researchers.
- The portal also features a Digital Catalogue of indigenously developed technologies.
Prime Minister’s Science, Technology and Innovation Advisory Council (PM STIAC)
- It is a 21 member advisory council that advises the PM on science, technology, as well as innovation. It also coordinates implementation of PMs scientific vision.
- It aids in the formulation and timely implementation of major science and technology missions and evolves interdisciplinary technology development programmes.
- It also advises the government on developing ‘Clusters of Excellence’ in science including city-based R&D clusters.
- It also aims to bring together all science and technology partners from academia and institutes to industries near such centres or cities.