- NIPUN BHARAT PROGRAMME
- ZIKA VIRUS DISEASE
- INDIA’S FIRST BANNI BUFFALO IVF CALF
NIPUN BHARAT PROGRAMME
Focus: GS II- Government Policies and Interventions
Why in News?
Government sets up National Steering Committee for implementation of the NIPUN Bharat Mission.
The following are the roles and responsibilities of the NSC for the NIPUN Bharat Mission:
- To oversee the progress of National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy and provide guidance on policy issues.
- To arrive at the target to be achieved nationally in 2026-27.
- To disseminate tools for measurement of yearly progress in the form of guidelines.
- To prepare and approve a National Action Plan (based on the State’s Action Plans) with KRAs for every State/UT vis-à-vis factors attributable for the gaps (i.e., lack of Fund, Vacancies, Teachers, Demography, Local issues, Need of Training for teachers, Curriculum & pedagogy related).
- To review programmatic and financial norms periodically to ensure they are synchronised with targets to be achieved.
- To develop methodology of assessment to analyse the progress and provide feedback to States/UTs.
About the Programme:
- This Mission was launched under the aegis of the centrally sponsored scheme of Samagra Shiksha.
- It will focus on providing access and retaining children in foundational years of schooling; teacher capacity building; development of high quality and diversified Student and Teacher Resources/Learning Materials; and tracking the progress of each child in achieving learning outcomes.
- It aims to cover the learning needs of children in the age group of 3 to 9 years.
- It emphasizes to focus on every child for developing basic language; literacy and numeracy skills which will help them develop into better readers and writers.
- It envisages making the experience of learning at the foundational stage Holistic, Integrated, Inclusive, Enjoyable, and Engaging.
- The unique feature is that the goals of the Mission are set in the form of Lakshya Soochi or Targets for Foundational Literacy and Numeracy.
- The success of NIPUN Bharat will primarily depend on teachers, so, there will be a special emphasis on capacity building of teachers.
- A special package for foundational literacy and Numeracy under NISHTHA is being developed by NCERT and around 25 lakh teachers teaching at pre-primary to primary grade will be trained this year.
Following outcomes have been envisaged from implementation of the goals and objectives of NIPUN Bharat Mission:
- Foundational skills enable to keep children in class thereby reducing the dropouts and improve transition rate from primary to upper primary and secondary stages.
- Activity based learning and conducive learning environment will improve quality of education.
- Innovative pedagogies such as toy-based and experiential learning will be used in classroom transaction thereby making learning a joyful and engaging activity.
- Intensive capacity building of teachers will make them empowered and provide greater autonomy for choosing the pedagogy.
- Holistic development of the child by focusing on different domains of development like physical and motor development, socio-emotional development, literacy and numeracy development, cognitive development, life skills etc. which are interrelated and interdependent, which will be reflected in a Holistic Progress Card.
- Children to achieve steeper learning trajectory which may have positive impacts on later life outcomes and employment.
- Since almost every child attends early grades, therefore, focus at that stage will also benefit the socio-economic disadvantageous group thus ensuring access to equitable and inclusive quality education.
- Samagra Shiksha – an overarching programme for the school education sector extending from pre-school to class 12 has been, therefore, prepared with the broader goal of improving school effectiveness measured in terms of equal opportunities for schooling and equitable learning outcomes.
- It subsumes the three erstwhile Schemes of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE).
- This sector-wide development programme/scheme would also help harmonise the implementation mechanisms and transaction costs at all levels, particularly in using state, district and sub-district level systems and resources, besides envisaging one comprehensive strategic plan for development of school education at the district level. The shift in the focus is from project objectives to improving systems level performance and schooling outcomes which will be the emphasis of the combined Scheme along-with incentivizing States towards improving quality of education.
ZIKA VIRUS DISEASE
Focus: GS II- Health
Why in News?
Recently, Union Health Ministry has rushed a high level multi-disciplinary team to Uttar Pradesh where a case of Zika Virus Disease case has been reported.
About Zika Virus Disease:
- Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys. It was later identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania.
- ZVD is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes (AM), mainly Aedes aegypti.
- This is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.
- Zika virus is also transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy, through sexual contact, transfusion of blood and blood products, and organ transplantation.
- Symptoms are generally mild and include fever, rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise or headache. Most people with Zika virus infection do not develop symptoms.
- Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause infants to be born with microcephaly (smaller than normal head size) and other congenital malformations, known as congenital Zika syndrome.
- There is no vaccine or medicine for Zika. Instead, the focus is on relieving symptoms and includes rest, rehydration and acetaminophen for fever and pain.
INDIA’S FIRST BANNI BUFFALO IVF CALF
Why in News?
With the birth of first IVF calf of a Buffalo breed namely Banni in the country, India’s OPU – IVF work has reached to next level.
- This first IVF Banni calf is born out of 6 Banni IVF pregnancies established at the doorsteps of a farmer. Banni buffalo is known for its resilience and higher milk producing capacity in an arid environment.
- The process was carried out to enhance the number of genetically superior buffaloes to increase milk production
- Both the government and the scientist fraternity see a great potential in the field of IVF of buffaloes and are striving hard to improve cattle wealth in the country.
- India has more than 109 million buffaloes that are 56 per cent of the world’s buffalo population.