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PIB 28th April


  1. New list of names of tropical cyclones over north Indian Ocean
  2. First ever virtual Petersberg Climate Dialogue
  3. India signs $1.5 billion loan with ADB


Focus: GS-II Geography, Prelims

Why in news?

In September, 2018 it was decided to prepare a fresh list of names of tropical cyclones, and the report was finally adopted by WMO/ESCAP PTC with consensus in April, 2020.

The names of cyclones that may emerge in the future in India are Gati, Tej, Murasu, Aag, Vyom, Jhar, Probaho, Neer, Prabhanjan, Ghurni, Ambud, Jaladhi and Vega, according to the report.

Important Background Details

  • Worldwide there are six regional specialised meteorological centres (RSMCs) and five regional Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs) mandated for issuing advisories and naming of tropical cyclones.
  • The India Meteorological Department is one of the six Regional Specialised Meteorological Centres (RSMCs) to provide tropical cyclone and storm surge advisories to 13 member countries under WMO/ESCAP PTC Panel (World Meteorological Organization / The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific – Panel on Tropical Cyclones PTC).

WMO/ESCAP Panel includes the following 13 member countries:

  1. India,
  2. Bangladesh,
  3. Iran,
  4. Maldives,
  5. Myanmar,
  6. Oman,
  7. Pakistan,
  8. Qatar,
  9. Saudi Arabia,
  10. Sri Lanka
  11. Thailand
  12. United Arab Emirates
  13. Yemen
  • New Delhi is also mandated to name the Tropical Cyclones developing over the north Indian Ocean (NIO) including the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS).
  • The tropical cyclones forming over different Ocean basins are named by the concerned RSMCs & TCWCs.
  • For north Indian Ocean including Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, the RSMC, New Delhi assigns the name to tropical cyclones following a standard procedure.

What is the use of Naming of Tropical Cyclones?

Naming of Tropical Cyclones helps the scientific community, disaster managers, media and general masses to

  • identify each individual cyclone.
  • create awareness of its development.
  • remove confusion in case of simultaneous occurrence of TCs over a region
  • remember a TC easily
  • rapidly and effectively disseminate warnings to much wider audience.

Criteria Adopted for Naming Cyclones

  1. The proposed name should be neutral to (a) politics and political figures (b) religious believes, (c) cultures and (d) gender
  2. Name should be chosen in such a way that it does not hurt the sentiments of any group of population over the globe
  3. It should not be very rude and cruel in nature
  4. It should be short, easy to pronounce and should not be offensive to any member
  5. The maximum length of the name will be eight letters
  6. The proposed name should be provided alongwith its pronunciation and voice over
  7. The Panel reserves the right to reject any name, if any of the criteria above is not satisfied.
  8. The finalised names may also be reviewed during the course of time of implementation with the approval of PTC in its annual session, in case any reasonable objection is raised by any member
  9. The names of tropical cyclones over the north Indian Ocean will not be repeated. Once used, it will cease to be used again.

Tropical cyclone

  • A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain or squalls.
  • Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names:
    • Cyclones in the Indian Ocean
    • Hurricanes in the Atlantic
    • Typhoons in the Western Pacific and the South China Sea
    • Willy-willies in Western Australia
Tropical Cyclones and Their Different Names in Different Regions Hurricane Typhoon
  • “Tropical” refers to the geographical origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively over tropical seas.
  • “Cyclone” refers to their winds moving in a circle, whirling round their central clear eye, with their winds blowing counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis effect.

Formation of Tropical Cyclones

How are Tropical Cyclones Formed High Humidity and Ocean Temperature
  • Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water.
  • They derive their energy through the evaporation of water from the ocean surface, which ultimately recondenses into clouds and rain when moist air rises and cools to saturation.
  • Water takes up heat from the atmosphere to change into vapour.
  • When water vapour changes back to liquid form as raindrops, this heat is released to the atmosphere.
  • The heat released to the atmosphere warms the air around.
  • The air tends to rise and causes a drop in the pressure.
  • More air rushes to the centre of the storm.
  • This cycle is repeated.


Focus: GS-II Environment and Ecology, Prelims

Why in news?

  • The 11th session of Petersberg Climate Dialogue witnessed India along with 30 other countries deliberating over ways and means to tackle the challenge of reinvigorating economies and societies after COVID-19, while enhancing collective resilience and catalysing climate action while also supporting in particular those most vulnerable.
  • The virtual XI Petersberg Climate Dialogue was co-chaired by Germany and United Kingdom, the incoming Presidency of 26th Conference of Parties (COP 26) to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  • The session was called to provide a forum for informal high-level political discussions, focusing both on international climate negotiations and the advancement of climate action.

Details of what India said in the Discussion

  • Today, as the World is unitedly engaged in finding a vaccine for novel Coronavirus, likewise we should have Climate Technology as open source which must be available at affordable cost.
  • COVID – 19 has taught us that we can survive on less, the world must think of adopting more sustainable consumption patterns in line with requirement of sustainable lifestyle.
  • India’s Nationally Determined Contributions spanning a ten-year time frame are ambitious and are also compliant with the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement.
  • The world has an opportunity now to accelerate renewable energy deployment and creating new green jobs in the renewable energy and energy efficiency sector.

Petersberg Climate Dialogue

  • The Petersberg Climate Dialogue is a series of annual international conferences at ministerial level that serve as a catalyst for the preparation of the annual UN climate conferences.
  • The dialogue was launched after the failed climate summit in Copenhagen in 2009 on the initiative of Germany in order to revitalize the climate protection process.


  • The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty adopted on 9 May 1992, and entered into force on 21 March 1994, after a sufficient number of countries had ratified it.
  • The UNFCCC objective is to “stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”.
  • The framework sets non-binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains NO ENFORCEMENT mechanisms.
  • The framework simply outlines how specific international treaties may be negotiated to specify further action towards the objective of the UNFCCC.
  • The parties to the convention have met annually from 1995 in Conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change.

Important Agreements / Treaties / Accords Signed

  • In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was concluded and established legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2008–2012. The Protocol was amended in 2012 to encompass the period 2013–2020 in the Doha Amendment.
  • In 2002, there was the Delhi Declaration that focuses on the development needs of the poorest countries and the need for technology transfer for mitigating climate change.
  • In 2009, Copenhagen Accord was drafted and Developed countries pledged up to USD 30 billion in fast-start finance for the period 2010-2012.
  • In 2015 the Paris Agreement was adopted, governing emission reductions from 2020 on through commitments of countries in Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), with a view of lowering the target to 1.5 °C, and this agreement entered into force on November 2016.


Focus: GS-II Indian Economy, Prelims

Why in news?

  • The Government of India and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) signed a $1.5 billion loan that will support the government’s response to the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on 28th April 2020.
  • Earlier, the ADB’s Board of Directors approved the loan to provide budget support to the government to counter and mitigate the adverse health and socio-economic impact of the pandemic.
  • This loan is sought focusing on immediate priorities such as disease containment and prevention, as well as social protection for the poor and economically vulnerable sections of the society, especially women and disadvantaged groups.
  • Building on the CARES Programme, ADB is also in dialogue with the government for further possible support for stimulating the economy, support strong growth recovery, and to build resilience to future shocks.

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

  • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966 to promote social and economic development in Asia.
  • It is headquartered in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
  • The ADB was modeled closely on the World Bank and an official United Nations Observer.
  • Japan holds the largest proportion of shares in ADB followed by the USA, and it has a weighted voting system where votes are distributed in proportion with members’ capital subscriptions (just like the World Bank).
  • The bank admits the members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP, formerly the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East or ECAFE) and non-regional developed countries.
  • ADB defines itself as a social development organization that is dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific through inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration.
  • ADB aids in reducing poverty through investments in the form of loans, grants and information sharing (in infrastructure, health care services, financial and public administration systems), helping nations prepare for the impact of climate change or better manage their natural resources, as well as other areas.
February 2024