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PIB 2nd January 2021


  1. Sri Mannathu Padmanabhan
  2. Co-WIN software
  3. COVID-19 Vaccine Dry Run


Focus: GS 1;The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country

Why in News?

PM pays tribute to Sri Mannathu Padmanabhan on his Jayanti

About Sri Mannathu Padmanabhan

  • Mannathu Padmanabhan (2 January 1878 – 25 February 1970) was an Indian social reformer and freedom fighter from the south-western state of Kerala.
  • He is recognised as the founder of the Nair Service Society (NSS), which claims to represent the Nair community that constitutes 12.10% (From KMS 2011) of the population of the state.
  • Padmanabhan is considered as a visionary reformer who organised the Nair community under the NSS.
  • Mannathu Padmanabhan Pillai was born in Perunna village in Changanacherry, Kottayam District, British India on 2 January 1878 to Easwaran Namboothiri of Nilavana Illam and Mannathu Parvathy Amma.
  • He began his career as a teacher in 1893 in a Government primary school.
  • After a few years, from 1905 he changed his profession and started practicing law, in the Magistrates Courts.
  • Padmanabhan died on 25 February 1970 at the age of 92, after age related complications.
  • Mannam memorial (or Samādhi) is located at NSS Headquarters Changanacherry.
  • He is regarded as the reformer and moral guide of the members of Nair community.
About Sri Mannathu Padmanabhan Political Life and Contributions
  • He fought for social equality, the first phase being the Vaikom Satyagraha, demanding the public roads near the temple at Vaikom be opened to low caste Hindus.
  • He took part in the Vaikom(1924) and Guruvayoor(1931) temple-entry Satyagrahas; the anti-untouchability agitations.
  • He opened his family temple for everyone, irrespective of caste distinction.
  • He became a member of the Indian National Congress in 1946 and took part in the agitation against Sir C. P. Ramaswamy Iyer’s administration in Travancore.
  • As the first president of the Travancore Devaswom Board, he revitalized many temples that had almost ceased to function.
  • On May 25, 1947, Padmanabhan delivered his famous Muthukulam Speech at Muthukulam, Alappuzha. He was arrested for the Indian Freedom Movement on 14 June 1947.
  • In 1949, Padmanabhan became a member of the Travancore Legislative Assembly.
  • In 1959, he along with Christian Churches led a united opposition against the State Communist Ministry, which became known as the Vimochana Samaram (liberation struggle).
  • The cause of the Vimochana Samaram was the introduction of an Education Bill by the Minister of Education, Joseph Mundassery, and the movement caused the dismissal of the Communist government under E. M. S. Namboodiripad on 31 July 1959.
  • After the success of the movement, he famously tethered a white horse at the Kerala Secretariat building as he had challenged to do if the dismissal was successful.
  • The consequence of the dismissal was the beginning of the President’s rule in the state under Article 356 of the Indian Constitution.
  • In 1964 he was instrumental in the formation of Kerala Congress, the first regional party in India


Focus: GS 2;Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Why in News?

COVID-19 Vaccine Roll Out, more than 75 lakh beneficiaries registered on Co-WIN software

About Co-WIN Software

  • The Co-WIN software has been developed by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India (MoHFW) for real time information of vaccine stocks, their storage temperature and individualized tracking of beneficiaries for COVID-19 vaccine. 
  • This software will assist the programme managers across all levels through automated session allocation for pre-registered beneficiaries, their verification and a digital certificate will be generated upon successful completion of the vaccine schedule.  
  • More than 75 lakh beneficiaries have been registered on Co-WIN software till date.
  • The cold chain infrastructure is sufficient to ensure last mile delivery of COVID-19 vaccine in a temperature controlled environment across the country.
  • Sufficient supplies of syringes and other logistics have also been ensured to begin COVID-19 vaccination drive. 
  • Around 1,14,100 vaccinators have been trained on the process to be followed at the vaccination sites which includes beneficiary verification, vaccination, cold chain & logistics management, Bio-Medical Waste management, AEFI management and uploading the information on Co-WIN software.
Digital Platform 'CO-WIN' | IAS Abhiyan


Focus: GS 2;Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Why in News?

COVID-19 Vaccine Dry Run Held Across India

Dr Harsh Vardhan visits GTB Hospital, Shahdara and UPHC, Daryaganj to review the Mock Drill

Assures the Nation that safety, efficacy & immunogenicity of the vaccine shall never be compromised

About COVID-19 Vaccine Dry Run

  • A dry run for COVID-19 vaccination was conducted by all state and union territory administrations.
  • The exercise includes necessary data entry in Co-WIN, an online platform for monitoring of vaccine delivery, testing receipt and allocation, deployment of team members, mock drill of session sites with test beneficiaries.
  • A dry run is when the link between planning and implementation is tested in order to plug any gaps. 
  • A dry run is crucial in multiple industries but gains even more importance due to the scale at which the vaccine will need to be administered.
  • Here, the logistics will be tested from start to finish.
  • Dummy vaccines will be transported from the cold chain plant where it is kept. Storage is crucial to keep vaccines viable as the temperature of the vaccine is controlled.
  • At the vaccination centre, there will be three rooms registration, vaccination and observation for smooth administration.
  • In addition to this, vaccination officers, administrators and health workers are trained. They are also trained to use the Co-WIN app.
  • Co-WIN or the COVID-19 Vaccine Intelligence Network is an app for the entire vaccination process, including who gets the vaccine and follow up.
  • It is also where people can register for a vaccine.
  • On the app, those in charge will have to register vaccine samples, people who received the dose and other aspects.
  • The dry run, which is a mock drill, sees the medical officer administering a dummy vaccine to a candidate, and will be used to check logistical requirements, internet connectivity, power supply, and safety norms.
  • On the logistical side, the vaccine’s temperature from the cold storage point to the centre will have to be tracked, SMSes will be sent to the beneficiaries with the name of the person administering the vaccine and the time at which it will be done, and if there are any adverse effects after the vaccine administered, it will be managed through a central server.
  • The objective of the dry run for COVID-19 vaccine introduction is to assess operational feasibility in the use of Co-WIN application in a field environment, to test the linkages between planning and implementation and to identify the challenges and guideway forward prior to actual implementation.
  • This is also expected to give confidence to programme managers at various levels
  • The central government has also asked all states and UTs to ensure effective preparedness for the COVID-19 vaccine roll-out.

May 2024