Focus: GS 1 ; Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
Why in News?
- The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has greeted the people on the occasion of the Parkash Purab (birthday celebrations) of Sri Guru Ramdas Ji.
- PM Ji Said “Sri Guru Ramdas Ji placed great emphasis on serving others, ending all forms of inequality and discrimination. His quest for a kind and harmonious society inspires us all. Greetings on the Parkash Purab of Sri Guru Ramdas Ji”.
- There are over 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them living in the Indian state of Punjab.
- The Sikhs call their faith Gurmat (in Punjabi its called “the Way of the Guru”).
- According to Sikh tradition, Sikhism was established by Guru Nanak (1469–1539) and subsequently led by a succession of nine other Gurus.
Above attached image of all 10 Gurus of Sikhism.
Below attached the table of The Ten Sikh Gurus Chronology Order.
- The Ten Gurus in Sikhism are as follows;-
|The Ten Sikh Gurus||All in AD (Years)|
|The First Master||Guru Nanak||(1469 to 1539)|
|The Second Master||Guru Angad||(1504 to 1552)|
|The Third Master||Guru Amar Das||(1479 to 1574)|
|The Fourth Master||Guru Ram Das||(1534 to 1581)|
|The Fifth Master||Guru Arjan||(1563 to 1606)|
|The Sixth Master||Guru Hargobind||(1595 to 1644)|
|The Seventh Master||Guru Har Rai||(1630 to 1661)|
|The Eighth Master||Guru Harkishan||(1656 to 1664)|
|The Ninth Master||Guru Tegh Bahadur||(1621 to 1675)|
|The Tenth Master||Guru Gobind Singh||(1666 to 1708)|
About Guru Ram Das (1534 AD to 1581 AD)
- The Guru Ram Das was the 4th Guru in the order of the Ten Sikh Guru’s Lineage.
- Ram Das Ji was born on 24 September 1534 in a family based in Lahore.
- His birth name was Jetha, and he was orphaned at age 7, thereafter grew up with his maternal grandmother in a village.
- The 3rd Guru Amar Das instead of choosing his own sons, chose Bhai Jetha (Birth name of Ram Das Ji) as his successor and renamed him as Ram Das or “servant or slave of god.”.
- Guru Ram Das became the Guru of Sikhism in 1574 and served as the Sikh leader until his death in 1581.
- Unlike the first four Gurus who were not related through descent, the fifth through tenth Sikh Gurus were the direct descendants of Ram Das Ji.
- Guru Ram Das Ji founded the city of Amritsar.
- He started the construction of the famous Golden Temple at Amritsar, the holy city of the Sikhs.
- He requested the Muslim Sufi, Mian Mir to lay the cornerstone of the Harmandir Sahib.
Above image of The Golden Temple, also known as Harmandir Sahib, meaning “abode of God”.
- Ram Das Ji composed 638 hymns, or about ten percent of hymns in the Guru Granth Sahib.
- Ram Das Ji was a celebrated poet, and composed his work in 30 ancient ragas of Indian Classical Music.
- Ram Das, along with Amar Das, are credited with various parts of the Anand and Laavan composition in Suhi mode. It is a part of the ritual of four clockwise circumambulation of the Sikh scripture by the bride and groom to solemnize the marriage in Sikh tradition.
- The composition of Ram Das emerged to be one of the basis of British colonial era Anand Marriage Act of 1909.
- While Guru Amar Das introduced the Manji system of religious organization, Ram Das extended it with adding the Masand institution.
- The Masand were Sikh community leaders who lived far from the Guru, but acted to lead the distant congregations, their mutual interactions and collect revenue for Sikh activities and temple building.
The Sikh Literature
The Adi Granth and the Dasam Granth
- The Adi Granth is believed by Sikhs to be the abode of the eternal Guru, and for that reason it is known to all Sikhs as the Guru Granth Sahib.
- The Guru Granth Sahib is the central religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign and eternal living Guru following the lineage of the ten human gurus of the religion.
- The Adi Granth, its first rendition, was compiled by the fifth guru, Guru Arjun (1563 AD to 1606 AD).
- The Dasam Granth is controversial in the Panth because of questions concerning its authorship and composition.
Focus: GS 2; Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
Why in News?
CCI approves acquisition of General Insurance Business of Bharti AXA by ICICI Lombard
- Competition is the best means of ensuring that the ‘Common Man’ or ‘Aam Aadmi’ has access to the broadest range of goods and services at the most competitive prices.
- As with the increased competition, producers will have maximum incentive to innovate and specialize. This would result in reduced costs and wider choice to consumers.
- A fair competition in market is essential to achieve the objective.
About The Competition Commission Act 2002
- The Competition Act, 2002 was passed by the Parliament in the year 2002, to which the President accorded assent in January, 2003. It was subsequently amended by the Competition (Amendment) Act, 2007.
- In accordance with the provisions of the Amendment Act, the Competition Commission of India (CCI) and the Competition Appellate Tribunal have been established.
- The Competition Commission of India is now fully functional with a Chairperson and six members. The provisions of the Competition Act relating to anti-competitive agreements and abuse of dominant position were notified on May 20, 2009.
- The Act prohibits anti-competitive agreements, abuse of dominant position by enterprises and regulates combinations (acquisition, acquiring of control and M&A), which causes or likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect on competition within India.
- The objectives of the Act are sought to be achieved through the Competition Commission of India, which has been established by the Central Government with effect from 14th October 2003. CCI consists of a Chairperson and 6 Members appointed by the Central Government.
- It is the duty of the Commission to eliminate practices having adverse effect on competition, promote and sustain competition, protect the interests of consumers and ensure freedom of trade in the markets of India.
- The Commission is also required to give opinion on competition issues on a reference received from a statutory authority established under any law and to undertake competition advocacy, create public awareness and impart training on competition issues.
- CCI goal is to create and sustain fair competition in the economy that will provide a ‘level playing field’ to the producers and make the markets work for the welfare of the consumers.
Focus: GS 2: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
Why in News?
Handing over Food Aid to Sudan by INS Airavat.
About Mission SAGAR – II (Explained in below attached Image)
- Mission Sagar-II, follows the first ‘Mission Sagar’ undertaken in May-June 2020, wherein India reached out to Maldives, Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar and Comoros, and provided food aid and medicines.
- As part of Mission Sagar-II, Indian Naval Ship Airavat will deliver food aid to Sudan, South Sudan, Djibouti and Eritrea.
- Mission Sagar-II, is in line with the Prime Minister’s vision of Security and Growth for All in the Region ‘SAGAR’ and highlights the importance accorded by India to relations with her maritime neighbors and further strengthens the existing bond.
- The Indian Navy is progressing this mission in close coordination with the Ministries of Defence and External Affairs, and other agencies of the Government of India.