- National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST)
- Competition Commission of India (CCI)
- SAMEER App
NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR SCHEDULED TRIBES (NCST)
Focus: GS 2;Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
Why in News?
NCST Develops Software to Facilitate Web Enabled Grievance Redressal System (https://ncstgrams.gov.in/public/Home.aspx)
About Scheduled Tribe Population In India
- A substantial list of Scheduled Tribes in India are recognised as tribal under the Constitution of India. Tribal people constitute 8.6% of the nation’s total population, over 104 million people according to the 2011 census.
- According to the 2011 Census of India, Bhil is the most populous tribe with a total population of 4,618,068, constituting 37.7 per cent of the total ST population.
- Gond is the second largest tribe, with a population of 4,357,918 constituting 35.6 per cent.
- Madhya Pradesh has the highest Scheduled Tribe population (14.7 per cent) and Meghalaya has the lowest (2.5 per cent).
- Odisha has largest number of tribal groups in India, as per the estimate there are 64 tribal groups in Odisha.
- Karnataka has the second largest number of tribal groups in the country.
- The smallest tribal community is the Andamanese, with a population of 19. Economically and socially least advanced, the scheduled tribes are the earliest inhabitants of India.
About National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST)
- National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) is an Indian constitutional body that was established through Constitution (89th Amendment) Act, 2003.
- On the 89th Amendment of the Constitution coming into force on 19 February 2003, the National Commission for scheduled Tribes has been set up under Article 338A on bifurcation of erstwhile National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to oversee the implementation of various safeguards provided to Scheduled Tribes under the Constitution.
- With this amendment, the erstwhile National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was replaced by two separate Commissions namely;-
- The National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC), and
- The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST).
About NCST Composition
- The Commission comprises a Chairperson, a Vice-Chairperson and three full-time Members (including one female Member).
- The term of all the Members of the Commission is 3 years from the date of assumption of charge.
About NCST Functions
- The following are the functions of the commission ;-
- To investigate and monitor all matters relating to the safeguards provided for the Scheduled Tribes under the Constitution or under any other law for the time being in force or under any order of the Government and to evaluate the working of such safeguards.
- To inquire into specific complaints with respect to the deprivation of rights and safeguards of the Scheduled Tribes.
- To participate and advise in the planning process of socio-economic development of the Scheduled Tribes and to evaluate the progress of their development under the Union and any State.
- To present to the President, annually and at such other times as the Commission may deem fit, reports upon the working of those safeguards.
- To make in such reports, recommendations as to the measures that should be taken by the Union or any State for effective implementation of those safeguards and other measures for the protection, welfare and socio-economic development of the Scheduled Tribes, and
- To discharge such other functions in relation to the protection, welfare and development and advancement of the Scheduled Tribes as the President may, subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament, by rule specify.
About NCST Powers
(Under Clause (8) of Art. 338A)
- For Investigation and Inquiry, the Commission is vested with powers of a civil court having authority to:-
- Summon and enforce attendance of any person and examine on oath.
- Discovery & production of any documents.
- Receive evidence on affidavits.
- Requisition any public record or copy thereof from any court or office.
- Issue Commissions for examination of witnesses and documents; and
- Any matter which President, by rule, may determine.
About NCST Constitutional Safeguards for STs
Educational & Cultural Safeguards
- Art. 15(4):- Special provisions for advancement of other backward classes(which includes STs).
- Art. 29:- Protection of Interests of Minorities (which includes STs).
- Art. 46:- The State shall promote, with special care, the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and in particular, of the Scheduled Castes, and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation,
- Art. 350:- Right to conserve distinct Language, Script or Culture.
- Art. 350:- Instruction in Mother Tongue.
- Art. 23:- Prohibition of traffic in human beings and beggar and other similar form of forced labour.
- Art. 24:- Forbidding Child Labour.
- Art.244:- Clause(1) Provisions of Fifth Schedule shall apply to the administration & control of the Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes in any State other than the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura which are covered under Sixth Schedule, under Clause (2) of this Article.
- Art. 275:- Grants in-Aid to specified States (STs&SAs) covered under Fifth and Sixth Schedules of the Constitution.
- Art.164(1):- Provides for Tribal Affairs Ministers in Bihar, MP and Orissa.
- Art. 330:- Reservation of seats for STs in Lok Sabha.
- Art. 337- Reservation of seats for STs in State Legislatures.
- Art. 334:- 10 years period for reservation (Amended several times to extend the period.).
- Art. 243:- Reservation of seats in Panchayats.
- Art. 371:- Special provisions in respect of NE States and Sikkim
- (Under Art.16(4),16(4A),164(B) Art.335, and Art. 320(40)
COMPETITION COMMISSION OF INDIA (CCI)
Focus: GS 2;Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
Why in News?
CCI amends one of the formats prescribed for notification of proposed combinations in Form I
About Competition Commission of India (CCI)
- Competition is the best means of ensuring that the ‘Common Man’ or ‘Aam Aadmi’ has access to the broadest range of goods and services at the most competitive prices.
- With increased competition, producers will have maximum incentive to innovate and specialize.
- A fair competition in market is essential to achieve this objective.
- Competition Commission of India is a statutory body of the Government of India responsible for enforcing The Competition Act, 2002 and promoting competition throughout India and to prevent activities that have an appreciable adverse effect on competition in India.
- It was established on 14 October 2003.
- The Competition Act, 2002, as amended by the Competition (Amendment) Act, 2007, follows the philosophy of modern competition laws.
- The Act prohibits anti-competitive agreements, abuse of dominant position by enterprises and regulates combinations (acquisition, acquiring of control and M&A), which causes or likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect on competition within India.
- The Competition Act, 2002 was amended by the Competition (Amendment) Act, 2007 and again by the Competition (Amendment) Act, 2009.
- Commission has the power to inquire into unfair agreements or abuse of dominant position or combinations taking place outside India but having adverse effect on competition in India, if any of the circumstances exists.
About Vision of CCI
- To promote and sustain an enabling competition culture through engagement and enforcement that would inspire businesses to be fair, competitive and innovative; enhance consumer welfare; and support economic growth.
About Mission of CCI
- Competition Commission of India aims to establish a robust competitive environment through:-
- Proactive engagement with all stakeholders, including consumers, industry, government and international jurisdictions.
- Being a knowledge intensive organization with high competence level.
- Professionalism, transparency, resolve and wisdom in enforcement.
About Composition of CCI
- The Commission consists of one Chairperson and six Members as per the Competition Act who shall be appointed by the Central Government.
- The commission is a quasi-judicial body which gives opinions to statutory authorities and also deals with other cases.
- The Chairperson and other Members shall be whole-time Members.
- The Chairperson and every other Member shall be a person of ability, integrity and standing and who, has been, or is qualified to be a judge of a High Court, or, has special knowledge of, and professional experience of not less than fifteen years in international trade, economics, business, commerce, law, finance, accountancy, management, industry, public affairs, administration or in any other matter which, in the opinion of the Central Government, may be useful to the Commission.
About Functions of CCI
- To eliminate practices having adverse effect on competition
- To give opinion on competition issues
- Consumer welfare
- Ensure fair and healthy competition in economic activities
- Implement competition policies
- ensure smooth alignment of sectoral regulatory laws in tandem with the competition law.
- Effectively carry out competition advocacy
Need of CCI
- Promote free enterprise
- Protect against market distortions
- Promotes domestic industries
Focus: GS 3;Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
Focus: GS 3; Conservation, environmental pollution, and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
Why in News?
CPCB asks NCR state pollution boards and agencies to take immediate and effective steps to control Air Pollution.
Urges public to provide feedback on polluting activities through SAMEER App
Air Quality to remain Very Poor in coming days.
- The SAMEER App, developed by the Central Pollution Control Bureau (CPCB), provides information air quality for more than 100 cities across India.
- The app boasts of an intuitive UI, representing the listed cities in a colour-coded format based on their AQI levels.
- SAMEER App is one of the air pollution mitigation measures which provides hourly updates on the National Air Quality Index (AQI).
- Engaging people on an interpersonal level, the SAMEER app can help any citizen file or track complaints related to garbage dumping, road dust, vehicular emissions or other pollution issues in a particular area.
- As such, the app can prove to be an effective tool for managing air pollution mitigation measures, and is thus capable of growing more handy than the SAFAR-Air or the AirVisual apps.
- The major factors behind air pollution in the country are traffic, industries, waste, dust, stubble, geography and meteorology.
- The government introduced BSVI fuel which reduces vehicular emissions by up to 60 per cent. Metro and e-buses have been introduced to reduce vehicular pollution.
- CPCB urges public to provide feedback on polluting activities through SAMEER App which can be downloaded from Google Play (https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.cpcb) and App store(https://apps.apple.com/in/developer/central-pollution-control-board/id1186664743?l=hi) for android and IOS respectively.
National Air Quality Index (AQI)
- The AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality.
- It focuses on health effects one might experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air.
- AQI is calculated for eight major air pollutants:
- Ground-level ozone,
- Carbon monoxide,
- Sulfur dioxide,
- Nitrogen dioxide,
- Ground-level ozone and airborne particles are the two pollutants that pose the greatest threat to human health in India.