Call Us Now

+91 9606900005 / 04

For Enquiry





Focus: GS Paper – 3: Environmental Pollution & Degradation

Why in news?

NCC conducting nationwide campaign to free seashores/beaches from plastic & other waste under ‘Puneet Sagar Abhiyan’.

  • The aim of the month-long Campaign is to propagate the message of ‘Importance of Clean Seashores/Beaches’ amongst the local population and future generation beginning December 01, 2021. 


  • To clean the plastic waste along the seashores in coastal areas
  • To generate awareness and educate target population about the measures for conservation and impact of plastic pollution along the sea beaches.
  • To sensitise and mobilise support of local population towards prevention of pollution. 

About Plastic Pollution:

  • Plastic pollution is caused by the accumulation of plastic waste (non-biodegradable) in the environment.
  • It can be categorized in primary plastics, such as cigarette butts and bottle caps, or secondary plastics, resulting from the degradation of the primary ones.
  • Most of the plastic trash in the oceans, Earth’s last sink, flows from land.
  • Trash is also carried to sea by major rivers, which act as conveyor belts, picking up more and more trash as they move downstream.
  • Once at sea, much of the plastic trash remains in coastal waters.
  • Microplastics: Once at sea, sunlight, wind, and wave action break down plastic waste into small particles, often less than one-fifth of an inch across. These so-called microplastics.
  • Microplastics include microbeads that are used in cosmetics and personal care products, industrial scrubbers and so on

Key points:

  • A recent study conducted by Un-Plastic Collective has revealed that India generates 46 million tonnes of plastic waste annually, of which 40% remains uncollected and 43% is used for packaging, most of which are of single-use plastic.
  • Single-use plastic is a disposable material that can be used only once before it is either thrown away or recycled, like plastic bags, water bottles, soda bottles, straws, plastic plates, cups, most food packaging and coffee stirrers are sources of single use plastic.

Impacts of Plastic Pollution:

  • Millions of animals are killed by plastics every year, from birds to fish to other marine organisms. Nearly 700 species, including endangered ones, are known to have been affected by plastics.
  • Economic Losses: Plastic waste along shoreline has a negative impact on tourism revenue
  • Implications for Human Health: The chemicals leached from the plastics contain compounds, like polybrominated diphenyl ether , bisphenol A , and phthalates, impact human health leading to various hormonal and genetic disorders.
  • Other effects include: land pollution, water and air pollution, ground water pollution, Interference with the Food Chain and so on

Government and Global Initiatives:

  • India has announced its commitment to eliminate single-use plastic by 2022 at Confederation of Indian Industry’s Sustainability Summit in New Delhi.
  • Project REPLAN (stands for REducing PLastic in Nature) launched by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) aims to reduce consumption of plastic bags by providing a more sustainable alternative.
  • The Group of 20 (G20) environment ministers, agreed to adopt a new implementation framework for actions to tackle the issue of marine plastic waste on a global scale.
  • Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016 state that every local body has to be responsible for setting up infrastructure for segregation, collection, processing, and disposal of plastic waste.
  • Plastic Waste Management (Amendment) Rules 2018 introduced the concept of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR).


Focus: GS Paper – 2: Government Policies & Interventions. GS Paper – 3: Growth & Development, Mobilization of Resources, Agricultural Marketing, Food Processing

Why in news?

The Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying is implementing this flagship scheme with highest ever estimate investment of ₹20050 crore in fisheries sector for a period of 5 years with effect from the financial year 2020-21.


  • Harnessing of fisheries potential in a sustainable, responsible, inclusive and equitable manner
  • Enhancing of fish production and productivity through expansion, intensification, diversification and productive utilization of land and water.
  • Modernizing and strengthening of value chain – post-harvest management and quality improvement
  • Doubling fishers and fish farmers incomes and generation of employment
  • Enhancing contribution to Agriculture Gross Value Added (GVA) and exports
  • Social, physical and economic security for fishers and fish farmers and
  • Robust fisheries management and regulatory framework.

About PMMSY:

  • It was launched on 10th September 2020.
  • The aim of the scheme is to bring about Blue Revolution through the sustainable development of the fisheries sector over a period of five years (2020-2025.)
  • It is a flagship scheme part of the Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.
  • Adopt ‘Cluster or Area-based Approaches’ and create fisheries clusters through backward and forward linkages.
  • Enhance fish production by an additional 70 lakh tonne and increase fisheries export earnings to Rs.1,00,000 crore by 2024-25.


It is an umbrella scheme to develop the fisheries sector with a total outlay of Rs. 20050 crores. It has two components:

  1. Central Sector Scheme: The project cost will be borne by the Central government.
  2. Centrally Sponsored Scheme: All the sub-components/activities will be implemented by the States/UTs and the cost will be shared between Centre and State.

Recent steps taken by the Department of Fisheries:

  • Imposing of uniform fishing ban in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) beyond territorial waters in East and West Coasts for certain period
  • Ban on destructive fishing methods
  • Discouraging juvenile fishing
  • promotion of river and sea ranching
  • Diversification of fisheries activities
  • Use of by-catch and juvenile fish excluders, turtle exclusion devices.
  • Providing need-based support to States/UTs for formulation and implementation of fisheries management plans
  • Promotion of deep sea fishing and measures to protect the aquatic ecology.


Focus: GS Paper – 1: Social Empowerment, GS Paper – 2: Government Policies & Interventions, Health, Welfare Schemes, Issues Related to Disability, International Treaties & Agreements

Why in news?

International Day of Persons with Disabilities was celebrated worldwide on 3rd December 2021.

Key Points:

  • Theme:  ‘Leadership and participation of persons with disabilities toward an inclusive, accessible, and sustainable post-COVID-19 world’.
  • According to World Health Organisation(WHO), more than 1 billion people experience disability, and this figure is predicted to rise, due in part to population ageing and an increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases.
  • People with disabilities—one billion people— are one of the most excluded groups in our society and are among the hardest hit in this crisis in terms of fatalities.

Government Initiatives:

  • Article 41 of the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP):  It states that the State shall make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness, and disablement, within the limits of its economic capacity and development.
  • Right to Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016: The Act provides for 4% reservation in government jobs for persons with disabilities. 
  • The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) was adopted in 2006. It has further advanced the rights and well-being of persons with disabilities in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and other international development frameworks.
  • Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan (Accessible India Campaign): It was launched by the Government on 03.12.2015 to provide universal accessibility to persons with disabilities so that they can live a meaningful life with dignity. 
  • Indian Sign Language Research and Training Centre:  To promote the empowerment of hearing-impaired persons and to create sign language in India.
  • Unique Disability Identity Card project:  Creating a National Database for Persons with Disabilities.
  • Other Scholarship Schemes
February 2024