- Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI)
- PM-KUSUM Scheme
- Indian Cancer Genomics Atlas (ICGA)
- Passage Exercise (PASSEX)
COALITION FOR DISASTER RESILIENT INFRASTRUCTURE (CDRI)
Focus: GS1; Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
Why in News?
In the backdrop of the 4th South Asian Forum of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), UNESCAP South Asia and Pacific virtually organised a special dialogue on disaster and climate resilience in South Asia.
About Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI)
- The Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure is an international coalition of countries, United Nations agencies, multilateral development banks, the private sector, and academic institutions, that aims to promote disaster-resilient infrastructure.
- The CDRI is the second major coalition launched by India outside of the UN, the first being the International Solar Alliance (ISA).
- Both of them are seen as India’s attempts to obtain a global leadership role in climate change matters.
- The CDRI was launched by the Prime Minister of India during his speech at the UN Climate Action Summit on 23 September 2019.
- The Prime Minister had initially announced India’s intention to work with partner countries and key stakeholders to form a coalition working towards the goal of improving the disaster resilience of infrastructure at the Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (AMCDRR) held in November 2016 in New Delhi. Since the AMCDRR, the Government of India has advocated for the issue of DRI and organized a series of consultations, advocacy efforts, and preparatory work at various regional and international forums.
- It was launched by Modi in September 2019 at the UN Secretary-General’s Climate Action Summit in New York, US.
- A platform where knowledge is generated and exchanged on different aspects of disaster and climate resilience of infrastructure.
- It will create a mechanism to assist countries to upgrade their capacities and practices, with regard to infrastructure development in accordance with their risk context and economic needs.
The Benefits and Significance of CDRI
- This initiative will benefit all sections of society.
- The economically weaker sections of society, women and children, are the most vulnerable to the impacts of disasters and hence, will be benefitted from the improvement of knowledge and practice in creating disaster resilient infrastructure.
- It will also benefit all areas with high disaster risk.
- In India, the north-eastern and Himalayan regions are prone to earthquakes, coastal areas to cyclones and tsunamis and central peninsular region to droughts.
The need of Global Coalition of CDRI
- The Infrastructure systems are key drivers of economic growth.
- The going from 2016 to 2040, the Global Infrastructure Hub pegs the global annual infrastructure investment needs at USD 3.7 trillion per year.
- A large part of this infrastructure will inevitably be exposed to a range of natural hazards.
- With the increasing demands of a growing global population and unpredictable hazard patterns, the existing infrastructure will be put under additional stress and new infrastructure will be built in hazardous areas.
- The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) highlights the role of improved disaster resilience of infrastructure as a cornerstone for sustainable development.
- The SFDRR includes four specific targets related to loss reduction:
1) Reduce global disaster mortality;
2) Reduce the number of affected people;
3) Reduce direct disaster economic loss; and
4) Reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure Target
5) on infrastructure is an important prerequisite to achieving the other loss reduction targets set out in the framework.
- Thus, there is a clear case for ensuring that all future infrastructure systems are resilient in the face of disasters in order to protect our investments.
- Many countries, including India, have over the years developed robust disaster management practices that have helped in sharply reducing human casualties in a disaster.
- However, the economic costs of a disaster remain huge, mainly due to the damage caused to big infrastructure.
- A global coalition for disaster resilient infrastructure would address concerns that are common to developing and developed countries, small and large economies, countries at early and advanced stages of infrastructure development, and countries that have moderate or high disaster risk.
Difference between Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (DRI) and Climate Resilient Infrastructure (CRI)
In the development discourse, “climate” and “disaster” resilient infrastructure are terms that are often either clubbed together or used interchangeably. Both terms fundamentally mean making infrastructure systems resilient to extreme events or progressive environmental impacts to maintain their functional integrity. However, there are some key areas of distinction:-
1) DRI also includes addressing disaster risk due to geophysical and geomorphological hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, tsunami and volcanic activity. Since infrastructure systems are built for long life cycles, it is imperative that DRI addresses risks emanating from such low frequency high impact events.
2) DRI must deal with technological hazards like nuclear radiation, dam failures, chemical spills, explosions which are not directly linked to climate.
3) More than 90 percent of disasters are a manifestation of weather and climate-related extreme events. In that sense, making infrastructure climate-resilient also contributes to making it disaster-resilient.
4) Some CRI efforts may focus on reducing carbon footprint of Infrastructure. While this may be a byproduct of DRI, DRI does not explicitly address these aspects.
- The Climate and weather related hazards are likely to become more intense and frequent in many parts of the world.
- However, there is uncertainty with regards to specific manifestations at the local level. Dealing with these uncertainties is a common challenge for building both climate and disaster resilient infrastructure systems.
Focus: GS 2; Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
Why in News?
MNRE issues Guidelines for Implementation of Feeder Level Solarisation under Component-C of PM-KUSUM Scheme
About PM- ‘Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthaan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM)
- It is a ₹1.4 lakh-crore scheme for promoting decentralised solar power production of up to 28,250 MW to help farmers.
- The PM-KUSUM scheme is implemented by ministry of new and renewable energy.
- The Kisan urja Suraksha evam Utthan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM) is a farmer-oriented solar power scheme that will allow setting up grid-connected solar plants in rural areas and off-grid solar pumps.
- Under the scheme, the government plans to incentivise farmers to run solar farm, water pumps and use barren land for generating power for extra income up to Rs 60,000 per acre every year.
- It aims at boosting farmers‘ income by allowing them to sell additional power to the grid through solar plants.
- It has a target to set up 25,750 megawatts (MW) solar capacity by 2022 to power irrigation pumps.
- It would provide extra income to farmers, by giving them an option to sell additional power to the grid through solar power projects set up on their barren lands. It would help in de-dieselising the sector as also the DISCOMS.
- The components of the scheme include building 10,000 MW solar plants on barren lands and providing sops to DISCOMS to purchase the electricity produced, ‘solarising’ existing pumps of 7250 MW as well as government tube wells with a capacity of 8250 MW and distributing 17.5 lakh solar pumps.
- The 60% subsidy on the solar pumps provided to farmers will be shared between the Centre and the States while 30% would be provided through bank loans. The balance cost has to be borne by the farmers.
- It is expected positive outcomes of the scheme include promotion of decentralised solar power production, reduction of transmission losses as well as providing support to the financial health of DISCOMs by reducing the subsidy burden to the agriculture sector. The scheme would also promote energy efficiency and water conservation and provide water security to farmers.
About PM KUSUM Scheme 3 Components
- The Setting up of 10,000 MW of decentralised ground / stilt-mounted grid-connected solar or other renewable energy based power plants.
- Installation of 17.5 lakh standalone solar agriculture pumps.
- The Solarisation of 10 lakh grid-connected agriculture pumps.
INDIAN CANCER GENOMICS ATLAS (ICGA)
Focus: GS 2; Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
Why in News?
Dr Harsh Vardhan virtually inaugurates the 2ndCancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) 2020 Conference
About Indian Cancer Genomics Atlas (ICGA)
- It has been initiated by a consortium of key stakeholders in India led by Council for Scientific and Industrial Research(CSIR), Government of India.
- To create indigenous, open-source and comprehensive database of molecular profiles of all cancers prevalent in Indian population to better understand the underlying factors patient by patient.
- It is a landmark cancer genomics program that molecularly characterized over 20,000 primary cancers and matched normal samples spanning 33 cancer types.
- It is a joint effort between the US- National Cancer Institute and the National Human Genome Research Institute began in 2006 bringing together researchers from diverse disciplines and multiple institutions.
The Cancer is a disease caused when cells divide uncontrollably and spread into surrounding tissues. Cancer is caused by changes to DNA, most cancer-causing DNA changes occur in sections of DNA called genes, these changes are also called genetic changes, above image of causes of cancer.
PASSAGE EXERCISE (PASSEX)
Focus: GS 2; Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
Why in News?
Passage Exercise (PASSEX) between Russian Federation Navy and Indian Navy in Eastern Indian Ocean Region
- The PASSEXs are conducted regularly by IN with units of friendly foreign navies, whilst visiting each other’s ports or during a rendezvous at sea.
- This exercise, being conducted in the Eastern Indian Ocean Region, reflects the strong long-term strategic relationship between the two countries and particularly, defence cooperation in the maritime domain.
- The exercise is aimed at enhancing interoperability, improving understanding and imbibing best practices between both the friendly navies, and would involve advanced surface and anti-submarine warfare exercises, weapon firings, seamanship exercises and helicopter operations.
- This PASSEX would be another step towards strengthening Indo-Russian defence relations.
- The two navies have built a robust relationship through regular exercises such as INDRA Navy conducted biennially, with the last edition held in the Northern Indian Ocean Region from 4 to 5 September 2020.
- The India conducts Passex with Japan, USA and Russia etc.