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PIB 4th February 2021


  1. Initiatives for Women and Children
  2. Schemes to promote Textile Industry
  3. Micro Irrigation Fund (MIF) for ‘Per Drop More Crop’
  4. IOR Defence Ministers’ Conclave
  5. ‘KAPILA’ for patent awareness



The Ministry of Women and Child Development in order to promote and enable women to access education, health and financial services, to support children in difficult circumstances and to alleviate malnutrition, has  taken initiatives which includes various legislations and implementation of various schemes which were highlighted in the Rajya Sabha recently.


GS-II: Social Justice (Welfare Schemes for Vulnerable Sections of the population) GS-I: Indian Society (Issues related to women and children)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Right to Education Act (RTE), 2009
  2. Code on Wages, 2019
  3. Code on Social Security, 2020
  4. Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code Bill, 2020
  5. Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015
  6. Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao
  7. Pradhan Mantri Matri Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)
  8. Janani Suraksha Yojana
  9. Working Women Hostels scheme
  10. Child Protection Services (CPS) Scheme
  11. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme
  12. Mission Poshan 2.0

Right to Education Act (RTE), 2009

  • The Right of you to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE) describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between the age of 6 to 14 years in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution.
  • The title of the RTE Act incorporates the words ‘free and compulsory’ – which means no child, other than a child who has been admitted by his or her parents to a school which is not supported by the appropriate Government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.
  • ‘Compulsory education’ casts an obligation on the appropriate Government and local authorities to provide and ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children in the 6-14 age group.
  • The act mandates 25% reservation for disadvantaged sections of the society where disadvantaged groups include SCs and STs, Socially Backward Class, Differently abled.
  • It also makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age-appropriate class.
  • It had a clause for “No Detention Policy” which has been removed under The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (Amendment) Act, 2019.

It lays down the norms and standards related to:

  1. Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs)
  2. Buildings and infrastructure
  3. School-working days
  4. Teacher-working hours.

The 86th amendment to the constitution of India in 2002, provided Right to Education as a Fundamental Right in part-III of the Constitution by inserting Article 21A which made Right to Education a fundamental right for children between 6-14 years.

Code on Wages, 2019

  • The Code on Wages, 2019, also known as the Wage Code consolidates the provisions of four labour laws concerning wage and bonus payments and makes universal the provisions for minimum wages and timely payment of wages for all workers in India.
  • The Code repeals and replaces the Payment of Wages Act, 1936, the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965, and the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.
  • The new Act links minimum wage across the country to the skills of the employee and the place of employment.
  • It seeks to universalizes the provisions of minimum wages and timely payment of wages to all employees irrespective of the sector and wage ceiling.
  • It seeks to ensure “Right to Sustenance” for every worker and intends to increase the legislative protection of minimum wage.
  • A National Floor Level Minimum Wage will be set by the Centre and will be revised every five years, while states will fix minimum wages for their regions, which cannot be lower than the floor wage.

Code on Social Security, 2020

  • The Code on Social Security, 2020 is a code to amend and consolidate the laws relating to social security with the goal to extend social security to all employees and workers either in the organised or unorganised or any other sectors.
  • The Social Security Code, 2020 brings unorganised sector, gig workers and platform workers under the ambit of social security schemes, including life insurance and disability insurance, health and maternity benefits, provident fund and skill upgradation, etc.
  • For the first time, provisions of social security will also be extended to agricultural workers also.
  • The act amalgamates nine central labour enactments relating to social security.

Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code Bill, 2020

  • The Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code Bill, 2020 spells out duties of employers and employees, and envisages safety standards for different sectors, focusing on the health and working condition of workers, hours of work, leaves, etc.
  • The code also recognises the right of contractual workers.
  • The code also brings in gender equality and empowers the women workforce. Women will be entitled to be employed in all establishments for all types of work and, with consent can work before 6 am and beyond 7 pm subject to such conditions relating to safety, holidays and working hours.
  • For the first time, the labour code also recognises the rights of transgenders. It makes it mandatory for industrial establishments to provide washrooms, bathing places and locker rooms for male, female and transgender employees.

Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015

  • The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 replaced the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000 to comprehensively address children in conflict with law and children in need of care and protection.
  • The Act changes the nomenclature from ‘juvenile’ to ‘child’ or ‘child in conflict with law’. Also, it removes the negative connotation associated with the word “juvenile”.
  • It also includes several new and clear definitions such as orphaned, abandoned and surrendered children; and petty, serious and heinous offences committed by children
  • The act includes special provisions to tackle child offenders committing heinous offences in the age group of 16-18 years.
  • It mandates setting up Juvenile Justice Boards and Child Welfare Committees in every district. Both must have at least one woman member each.
  • The Act included several new offences committed against children (like, illegal adoptions, use of child by militant groups, offences against disabled children, etc) which are not adequately covered under any other law.
  • All Child Care Institutions, whether run by State Government or by voluntary or non-governmental organisations are to be mandatorily registered under the Act within 6 months from the date of commencement of the Act.

Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao

  • Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao is a campaign of the Government of India that aims to generate awareness and improve the efficiency of welfare services intended for girls in India.
  • BBBP is a national campaign and focussed multisectoral action in 100 selected districts low in Child Sex Ratio (CSR), covering all States and UTs.
  • This is a joint initiative of the Ministry of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Ministry of Human Resource Development.

Main Objectives of the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme are:

  1. Prevention of gender-biased sex-selective elimination.
  2. Ensuring survival & protection of the girl child.
  3. Ensuring education and participation of the girl child.
  4. Protecting rights of Girl child.

Pradhan Mantri Matri Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)

  • Pradhan Mantri Matri Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) is a maternity benefit program run by the government of India since 2017.
  • It is a centrally sponsored scheme being executed by the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • It is a conditional cash transfer scheme for pregnant and lactating women of 19 years of age or above for the first live birth.
  • It provides a partial wage compensation to women for wage-loss during childbirth and childcare and to provide conditions for safe delivery and good nutrition and feeding practices.
  • Implementation of the scheme is closely monitored by the central and state governments through the Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana – Common Application Software (PMMVY-CAS).
  • All Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers (PW&LM), excluding those who are in regular employment with the Central Government or the State Governments or PSUs or those who are in receipt of similar benefits under any law for the time being in force are the target beneficiaries including PW&LM who have their pregnancy on or after 1st January 2017 for the first child in the family.

Janani Suraksha Yojana

  • The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) is a 100% centrally sponsored scheme which is being implemented with the objective of reducing maternal and infant mortality by promoting institutional delivery among pregnant women.
  • Basically, it is a safe motherhood intervention under the National Health Mission (NHM).
  • Under the JSY, eligible pregnant women are entitled for cash assistance irrespective of the age of mother and number of children, for giving birth in a government or accredited private health facility.
  • The scheme also provides performance-based incentives to women health volunteers known as Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) for promoting institutional delivery among pregnant women.
  • The scheme focuses on the poor pregnant woman with special dispensation for states that have low institutional delivery rates, namely, the states of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Assam, Rajasthan, Odisha, and Jammu and Kashmir. (These states have been named the Low Performing States (LPS) under the scheme and the remaining States/UTs have been named the High Performing States (HPS).)

Working Women Hostels scheme

  • The Working Women Hostels scheme is implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • It aims to ensure safe accommodation for women working away from their place of residence.
  • To provide safety for working women, a provision has been made to keep security guards and to install CCTV Cameras in Working Women Hostels.
  • To provide quality of stay for working women, provision has been made to provide safe and affordable accommodation with clean and well-ventilated day care centres for the children of inmates, medical first-aid and providing washing machines and geysers/solar water heating systems.

Child Protection Services (CPS) Scheme

  • The Ministry of Women and Child Development implements a centrally sponsored Child Protection Services (CPS) Scheme (erstwhile Integrated Child Protection Scheme – ICPS) under the umbrella Integrated Child Development Services scheme for supporting the children in difficult circumstances.
  • Under the scheme institutional care is provided through Child Care Institutions (CCIs), as a rehabilitative measure.
  • The programmes and activities in CCIs inter-alia include age-appropriate education, access to vocational training, recreation, health care, counseling etc.
  • Under the non-institutional care component, support is extended for adoption, foster care and sponsorship.
  • Further CPS also provides for “After care” services after the age of 18 years to help sustain them during the transition from institutional to independent life.
  • The details of CCIs supported under CPS along with the number of children residing in them as informed by the States/UTs is Annexed.

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme

  • Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) is a government programe in India which provides food, preschool education, primary healthcare, immunization, health check-up and referral services to children under 6 years of age and their mothers.
  • The scheme was launched in 1975, discontinued in 1978 by the government of Morarji Desai, and then relaunched by the Tenth Five Year Plan.
  • In addition to fighting malnutrition and ill health, the programme is also intended to combat gender inequality by providing girls the same resources as boys.

Mission Poshan 2.0

  • Mission Poshan 2.0 was announced by the Finance Minister as a part of the Union Budget 2021-22 – aimed at improving and strengthening nutritional content, delivery, outreach and outcomes.
  • The supplementary nutrition programme and the Poshan Abhiyaan has been merged to launch Mission Poshan 2.0.
  • Mission POSHAN 2.0 will prioritize 112 aspirational districts and develop practices that will nurture health, wellness & immunity of children and pregnant women thereby making a concerted effort towards eradicating malnutrition from its roots.

-Source: PIB



Government is implementing various policy initiatives and schemes for supporting the development of textile sector in India and these were highlighted by the Union Minister of Textiles in the Rajya Sabha recently.


GS-II: Social Justice (Government Schemes and Interventions), GS-III: Industry and Infrastructure

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Significance of Textile Sector in India
  2. Amended Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (ATUFS)
  3. PowerTex India
  4. Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP)
  5. Samarth Scheme for Textile Sector
  6. National Handloom Development Programme (NHDP)
  7. North-East Region Textile Promotion Scheme (NERTPS)
  8. Rebate of State and Central Taxes and Levies (RoSCTL)
  9. Mahatma Gandhi Bunkar Bima Yojana
  10. Mega Investment Textiles Parks (MITRA) Scheme

Significance of Textile Sector in India

  • The Textile Sector accounts for 7% of India’s manufacturing output, 2% of GDP, 12% of exports and employs directly and indirectly about 10 crore people.
  • Owing to the abundant supply of raw material and labour, India is the largest producer of cotton (accounting for 25% of the global output) and second-largest producer of textiles and garments and man-made fibres (polyester and viscose).
  • The availability of a strong domestic market in India is a major reason that increases the importance of the sector.

Amended Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (ATUFS)

  • The Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme was introduced by the Government in 1999 to facilitate new and appropriate technology for making the textile industry globally competitive and to reduce the capital cost for the textile industry.
  • In 2015, the government approved “Amended Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (ATUFS)” for technology upgradation of the textiles industry.

PowerTex India

  • PowerTex India was launched by the Ministry of textiles as a comprehensive scheme for power loom sector development.
  • PowerTex India scheme comprises new research and development in power loom textiles, new markets, branding, subsidies and welfare schemes for the workers.
  • Under Pradhan Mantri Credit Scheme (PMCS) for powerloom weavers’ financial assistance, including margin money subsidy and interest reimbursement, will be given as against the credit facility under Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana to the decentralised power loom units.
  • Under Solar energy scheme (SEC) for powerlooms financial subsidy for the installation of the Solar Photo Voltaic Plants will be provided to alleviate the problems of power cuts.

Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP)

  • Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP) was launched in 2005 to provide the industry with world-class state of the art infrastructure facilities for setting up their textile units and to attract foreign investors to the domestic textile sector.
  • Under the SITP, infrastructure facilities for setting up of textile units are developed in a Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) model.
  • The Government of India grants upto 40% of the project cost, however, it grants upto 90% of the project cost for the first two projects (each) in the North Eastern States, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Union Territory of Jammu & Kashmir and Union Territory of Ladakh.

Samarth Scheme for Textile Sector

Samarth Scheme, also known as Scheme for Capacity Building in the Textile Sector (SCBTS) was launched in order to ensure steady supply of skilled manpower in the labour-intensive textile sector.

The objectives of Samarth Scheme for textile sector are:

  1. Provide demand driven, placement oriented National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) compliant skilling programmes to create jobs in the organized textile and related sectors, covering the entire value chain of textile, excluding Spinning and Weaving.
  2. Promote skilling and skill upgradation in the traditional sectors of handlooms, handicrafts, sericulture and jute.
  3. Enable provision of sustainable livelihood either by wage or self-employment.

National Handloom Development Programme (NHDP)

  • The National Handloom Development Programme (NHDP) is a Central Sector Plan Scheme which follows need-based approach for integrated and holistic development of handlooms and welfare of handloom weavers.
  • The scheme will support weavers, both within and outside the cooperative fold including Self Help Groups, NGOs etc. towards raw material, design inputs, technology up-gradation, marketing, support through exhibitions, create permanent infrastructure in the form of Urban Haats, marketing complexes, development of web portal for e-marketing of handloom products etc.
  • With this the weavers have been benefited by waivers of overdue loans, availing loans at concessional rates, participation in exhibitions/fairs/craft melas for marketing handloom products, upgradation of looms and training to improve their earnings.

North-East Region Textile Promotion Scheme (NERTPS)

  • The NERTPS scheme was launched by the Union Textile Ministry. Under this intervention, each state now has one centre with three units having approximately 100 machines each.
  • The broad objective of the North East Textile Promotion Scheme is to develop and modernise the textile sector in the North East Region by providing the required Government support in terms of raw material, seed banks, machinery, common facility centres, skill development, design and marketing support etc.
  • The specific objectives of the scheme include increase in the value of textile production, technology upgradation, improvement in design capability, diversification of product lines and value addition, better access to domestic and export markets, clusterisation and improvement in labour productivity, market access & market promotion.

Rebate of State and Central Taxes and Levies (RoSCTL)

  • RoSCTL was offered for embedded state and central duties and taxes that are not refunded through Goods and Services Tax (GST).
  • It was introduced by the Ministry of Textiles and was available only for garments and made ups.

Mahatma Gandhi Bunkar Bima Yojana

  • The Bunkar Bima Yojana was introduced by the Government of India in 2003 and since 2005-06 this scheme has been revised and implemented with the title “Mahatma Gandhi Bunkar Yojana”.
  • It is being implemented by the Ministry of Textiles to provide enhanced insurance cover to the handloom weavers in the case of natural as well as accidental death and in cases of total or partial disability.
  • All weavers, whether male or female, between the age group of 18 and 59 years are eligible to benefit from the scheme.

Mega Investment Textiles Parks (MITRA) Scheme

  • The textiles ministry has proposed to develop seven Mega Integrated Textile Region and Apparel (MITRA) parks as part of a plan to double the industry size to $300 billion by 2025-26.
  • The parks to be setup over 1,000 acres of land with world class infrastructure, and plug-and-play facilities.
  • It will enable the textile industry to become globally competitive, attract large investments, boost employment generation and exports.
  • The MITRA scheme will lead to increased investments and enhanced employment opportunities with the support from the Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme.
  • MITRA will also give the domestic manufacturers a level-playing field in the international textiles market through emphasis on state-of-the-art infrastructure.

-Source: PIB



The Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW) is implementing a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of ‘Per Drop More Crop’ component of ‘Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY-PDMC)’ from 2015-16 in all the States of the country which focuses on enhancing water use efficiency at farm level through Micro Irrigation viz. Drip and Sprinkler irrigation systems.


GS-III: Agriculture

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is Micro-irrigation?
  2. Benefits of Micro Irrigation
  3. Micro Irrigation Fund (MIF)
  4. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY)
  5. Objectives of PMKSY
  6. Per Drop More Crop (PDMC)
  7. Har Khet Ko Pani (HKKP)

What is Micro-irrigation?

  • Micro-irrigation is considered as a prudent Irrigation technology promoted nationally and Internationally to achieve higher cropping Intensity and irrigation Intensity through more focused application of water to crops.
  • Different types of systems are drip irrigation, sprinkler Irrigation, micro-sprinkler, porous pipe system, rain gun etc., where drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation dominate among all these systems.

Benefits of Micro Irrigation

  • Micro irrigation helps in significant reduction of water conveyance losses, runoff, evaporation losses, and seepage & deep percolation losses. This ensures higher water use efficiency up to 50-90%.
  • Micro irrigation requires minimum pressure and low flow rate only. Hence, this ensures energy consumption saving up to 30 %.
  • Even small wells and tanks can also be used as a source of water. Since this system requires very low pressure, off-grid farmers can use solar pumps or diesel pumps.
  • Proper mixing of fertilizers and water, control of optimum dosage and direct application of fertilizers to the root zone result in the saving in fertilizer consumption up to almost 30%
  • The crop yield (quantity and quality) is increased and the enhancement of productivity is estimated for fruits by more than 40% % and for vegetables by more than 50%.
  • This technology reduces the overall cost of irrigation due to decrease in labour requirement for irrigation, weeding and fertilizer application.

Micro Irrigation Fund (MIF)

  • The Micro Irrigation Fund (MIF) was conceptualised in 2019-20 with a corpus of Rs. 5000 crore under National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD).
  • The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare is the Nodal Ministry.
  • The fund is aimed at incentivizing its adoption beyond provisions of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana-Per Drop More Crop (PMKSY-PDMC).
  • The objective of the fund is to facilitate State Governments’ efforts in mobilizing additional resources for expanding coverage under micro irrigation.

Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY)

  • Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (Core Scheme) launched in 2015, with a vision of expanding irrigation coverage (Har Khet ko Pani) and using the water more efficiently (More Crop Per Drop).
  • All the States and Union Territories including North Eastern States are covered under the programme.
  • It is characterised by Decentralised implementation through State Irrigation Plan and District Irrigation Plan.
  • The cost sharing for Centre- States will be 75:25 per cent and for the north-eastern region and hilly states, it will be 90:10.

Objectives of PMKSY

  • Achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level (preparation of district level and, if required, sub district level water use plans).
  • Enhance the physical access of water on the farm and expand cultivable area under assured irrigation (Har Khet ko pani).
  • Integration of water source, distribution and its efficient use, to make best use of water through appropriate technologies and practices.
  • Improve on – farm water use efficiency to reduce wastage and increase availability both in duration and extent.
  • Enhance the adoption of precision – irrigation and other water saving technologies (More crop per drop).
  • Enhance recharge of aquifers and introduce sustainable water conservation practices.

Per Drop More Crop (PDMC)

Improving the efficiency of water usage by various initiatives like precision water application devices, construction of micro-irrigation structures to supplement source creation activities including tube wells and dug wells, etc.

Har Khet Ko Pani (HKKP)

  • Creation of new water sources through minor water system (both surface and groundwater)
  • Repair, reclamation, and redesign of conventional water bodies
  • Charge range advancement
  • Fortifying and production of dispersion organized from sources to the ranch and
  • Creating and rejuvenating traditional water storage systems like Jal Mandir (Gujarat); Khatri, Kuhl (H.P.); Zabo (Nagaland); Eri, Ooranis (T.N.); Dongs (Assam); Katas, Bandhas (Odisha and M.P.), etc. at feasible locations.

-Source: PIB



The Indian Ocean Region (IOR) Defence Ministers’ Conclave was held on the sidelines of Aero India 2021 in Bengaluru.

Several Defence Ministers, Ambassadors, High Commissioners and senior officials from IOR countries have attended the event physically or in virtual mode.


GS-II: International Relations (Policies and Agreements that affect India’s interests)

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Highlights of Indian Defence Minister’s Keynote address at the conclave
  2. Indian Ocean Region (IOR)
  3. Importance of the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) for India

Highlights of Indian Defence Minister’s Keynote address at the conclave

  • As the largest nation in the IOR region with a vast coast line of 7500 Kms, India has an active role to play for peaceful and prosperous co-existence of all countries.
  • Indian Ocean is a shared asset and a lifeline to international trade and transport due to its control of major sea-lanes carrying half of the world’s container ships, one third of the world’s bulk cargo traffic and two thirds of the world’s oil shipments.
  • IOR conclave should focus on security, commerce, connectivity, fight against terrorism and inter cultural exchanges.
  • IOR faces a number of challenges such as piracy, smuggling of drugs/people and arms, humanitarian and disaster relief, and Search & Rescue (SAR) which can be met through maritime co-operation.
  • India was developing a comprehensive Maritime Domain Awareness picture in the IOR, which has resulted in signing of Technical Agreements for sharing of ‘White Shipping Information’.
  • India’s swift response during the cyclones in Mozambique and Madagascar and reaching out to countries through medical teams, medicines such as hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir and paracetamol tablets, diagnostic kits, ventilators, masks, gloves and other medical supplies through Operation-Sagar-I during COVID times was also highlighted.

Indian Ocean Region (IOR)

The Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean of the world and covers nearly 20% of water surface.

Extent of the IOR

  1. Its western border is continental Africa to a longitude of 20° E, where it stretches south from Cape Agulhas;
  2. Its northern border is continental Asia from Suez to the Malay Peninsula;
  3. In the east it incorporates Singapore, the Indonesian archipelago, Australia to longitude 147° E and Tasmania;
  4. In the south it stretches to latitude 60° S as determined per the Antarctic Treaty of 1959.
  • The IOR region has 51 coastal and landlocked states, namely 26 Indian Ocean Rim (IOR) states, five Red Sea states, four Persian Gulf states, Saudi Arabia, France, Britain and 13 landlocked states.
  • Four critically important access waterways are the Suez Canal (Egypt), Bab-el Mandeb (Djibouti-Yemen), Strait of Hormuz (Iran-Oman), and Strait of Malacca (Indonesia-Malaysia).
  • The region contains 1/3 of the world’s population, 25% of its landmass, 40% of the world’s oil and gas reserves.

Importance of the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) for India

  • A major concern of India in the Indian Ocean is energy. India is almost 70 per cent dependent on oil import, major part of which comes from gulf region.
  • More than 80 % of the world’s seaborne trade in oil transits through Indian Ocean choke points, with 40 % passing through the Strait of Hormuz, 35% through the Strait of Malacca and 8 % through the Bab el-Mandab Strait.
  • The region is home to continually evolving strategic developments including the competing rises of China and India, potential nuclear confrontation between India and Pakistan, the US interventions in Iraq and Afghanistan, Islamist terrorism, growing incidence of piracy in and around the Horn of Africa, and management of diminishing fishery resources.
  • Almost all the world’s major powers have deployed substantial military forces in the Indian Ocean region.
  • The region is rich in energy resources and minerals such as gold, tin, uranium, cobalt, nickel, aluminium and cadmium, and also contains abundant fishing resources.
  • Roughly 55 per cent of known oil reserves and 40 per cent of gas reserves are in the Indian Ocean region.
  • China’s aggressive soft power diplomacy has widely been seen as arguably the most important element in shaping the Indian Ocean strategic environment, transforming the entire region’s dynamics.

-Source: PIB



The Government has launched a campaign namely Kalam Program for Intellectual Property Literacy and Awareness Campaign (KAPILA) for Intellectual Property Literacy and creating patent awareness.


GS-III: Science and Technology, Intellectual Property Rights

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. Kalam Program for Intellectual Property Literacy and Awareness Campaign (KAPILA)
  2. What are Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)?
  3. India and IPR
  4. National IPR Policy

Kalam Program for Intellectual Property Literacy and Awareness Campaign (KAPILA)

The KAPILA programme was launched in 2020 through which the Government will spread the awareness and importance of patenting and inventions.

It aims to tap the resources in the field of Intellectual Property to come ahead with their inventions and blend it towards Patents.

The objectives of the KAPILA scheme are:

  1. Creating awareness regarding Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs)
  2. Enabling of IP protection of inventions originating from faculty and students of HEIs
  3. Development of Credit Course on IPR
  4. Training program on IPR for faculty and students of HEIs
  5. Sensitization and development of vibrant IP filing system.

What are Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)?

  • Intellectual property rights (IPR) are the rights given to persons over the creations of their minds: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names and images used in commerce. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time.
  • These rights are outlined in Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which provides for the right to benefit from the protection of moral and material interests resulting from authorship of scientific, literary or artistic productions.
  • The importance of intellectual property was first recognized in the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (1883) and the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (1886). Both treaties are administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

India and IPR

  • India is a member of the World Trade Organisation and committed to the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS Agreement).
  • India is also a member of World Intellectual Property Organization, a body responsible for the promotion of the protection of intellectual property rights throughout the world.
  • India is also a member of the following important WIPO-administered International Treaties and Conventions relating to IPRs.

National IPR Policy

  • The National Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Policy 2016 was adopted in 2016 as a vision document to guide future development of IPRs in the country.
  • It encompasses and brings to a single platform all IPRs, taking into account all inter-linkages and thus aims to create and exploit synergies between all forms of intellectual property (IP), concerned statutes and agencies.
  • It sets in place an institutional mechanism for implementation, monitoring and review. It aims to incorporate and adapt global best practices to the Indian scenario.
  • Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP), Ministry of Commerce, Government of India, has been appointed as the nodal department to coordinate, guide and oversee the implementation and future development of IPRs in India.

-Source: PIB

December 2023