Focus: GS Paper – 3: Defence Technology

Why in news?

‘Sandhayak’, the first of the four Survey Vessels (Large) project being built for the Indian Navy, was launched in Kolkata on December 05, 2021.

Key Points:

  • These Vessels have been designed and developed by Defence Public Sector Undertaking, Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE) Limited.
  • These survey ships are capable of full scale coastal & deep-water hydrographic survey of Ports & Harbour approaches
  • Determination of navigational channels & routes.
  • Capable of undertaking survey of maritime limits and collection of Oceanographic & Geographical data for Defence applications, thus boosting the maritime capabilities of the country.
  • These large Survey ships are expected to replace the existing Sandhayak Class survey ships.


  • The launch of the ship reinforces the Government’s commitment of indigenous shipbuilding as part of Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi’s vision of ‘Make in India’ and provides thrust to ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’. 
  • Blue economy is one of the core dimensions of growth as per the Government’s vision of New India by 2030.
  • The vessel will be a major contributor towards meeting the initiatives and vision for sustainable development in the maritime domain. 
  • It will ensure safe navigation of not just Indian ships, but of friendly foreign nations in the Indian Ocean Region. 
  • Strengthen bilateral ties and in opening up & promoting trade opportunities for India in the long term


Focus: GS Paper – 3: Various Security Forces & Agencies & Their Mandate

Why in news?

The eleventh edition of the Joint Military Exercise Ekuverin, between the Indian Army and the Maldives National Defence Force, is being held from 06 to 19 December 2021 at Kadhdhoo Island, Maldives.

Key Points:

  • The exercise will enhance synergy & inter-operability between Armed Forces of both the Nations in terms of understanding transnational terrorism both on land & at sea.
  • Conducting Counter Terrorism & Counter Insurgency Operations
  • Sharing best military practices and experiences.
  • The joint military excercise will also include cultural and sports activities to enhance defence cooperation and bilateral relations.


  • The exercise will go a long way in strengthening India’s relations with Maldives amidst emerging security dynamics in the Indian Ocean Region.


Focus: GS Paper – 3Government Policies & Interventions, Economics of Animal-Rearing

Why in news?

Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) rolls out Project RE-HAB  (Reducing Elephant-Human Attacks using Bees) in Assam to Prevent Elephant – Human Conflicts Using Tiny Bees.

About Project RE-HAB (Reducing Elephant-Human Attacks using Bees):

  • The project was launched in Karnataka on a pilot basis in March 2021.
  • The main objective of the project is to repel elephant attacks on human habitations using honey bees thereby reducing the loss of human and elephant lives.
  • Project is an initiative of the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).
  • This project is a sub-mission under the National Honey Mission

How does it work?

  • It is scientifically recorded that elephants are annoyed by the honey bees.
  • Elephants also fear that the bee swarms can bite their sensitive inner side of the trunk and eyes.
  • The collective buzz of the bees is annoying to elephants that force them to return.
  • “Bee-fences” are created by setting up bee boxes in the passage ways of elephants to block their entrance to human territories.
  • The boxes are connected with a string so that when elephants attempt to pass through, a tug or pull causes the bees to swarm the elephant herds and dissuade them from progressing further.  
  • The bee boxes are placed on the ground and also hung from trees.

Key Points:

  • Nearly 500 people die every year due to elephant attacks in India.
  • From 2015 to 2020, nearly 2500 people have lost their lives in elephant attacks.
  • On the contrary, nearly one-fifth of this number, i.e. nearly 500 elephants have also died in retaliation by humans in the last 5 years.


  • Mitigates human-elephant conflicts without causing elephants any harm.
  • It is sustainable and cost-effective way of reducing human-wild conflicts without causing any harm to the animals.
  • This initiative will avoid crop losses and help in enhancing farmers’ incomes.

Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC):

  • It is a statutory body established under the Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act, 1956.
  • It functions under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises.
  • It aims at providing employment, producing saleable articles, creating self-reliance amongst the poor and building up of a strong rural community spirit.
  • It is charged with the planning, promotion, organization and implementation of programs for the development of Khadi and other village industries in the rural areas in coordination with other agencies engaged in rural development wherever necessary.
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