- AZADI KA AMRIT MAHOTSAV
- HEAT WAVE
- VAN DHAN VIKAS YOJANA
AZADI KA AMRIT MAHOTSAV
Focus: GS I-Modern History
Why in news?
The Vice President graced the colourful closing ceremony of the 25-day long commemorative Dandi Padyatra as part of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav near National Salt Satyagraha Memorial , Dandi, Gujarat.
- On 12 March 1930 Gandhiji launched the historic civil disobedience movement in India, with the iconic Dandi Salt March.
- ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’—a 75-week festival to commemorate 75 years of India’s Independence.
- The Mahotsav commenced with a padayatra from Sabarmati to Dandi over 25 days, culminating on 5th April, retracing the footsteps of Bapu during the historic ‘Salt March.
- Mahatma Gandhi led a march to break one of the most widely disliked laws in British India, which gave the state a monopoly in the manufacture and sale of salt.
- The 24-day march from March 12 to April 5, 1930 was a tax resistance campaign against the British salt monopoly.
- The march marked the inauguration of the civil disobedience movement.
- Gandhi reached Dandi on April 5. The following day, early morning he proceeded along with the other marchers to the sea, where he picked up lumps of natural salt lying in a small pit.
- The following month Gandhi proceeded to Dharasana salt works from where he was arrested and taken to the Yerawada Central Jail.
Dandi March was notable for at least three reasons:
- It was the first nationalist activity in which women participated in large numbers. The socialist activist Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay had persuaded Gandhiji not to restrict the protests to men alone. Kamaladevi was herself one of numerous women who courted arrest by breaking the salt or liquor laws.
- It was the Salt March which forced upon the British the realization that their Raj would not last forever, and that they would have to devolve some power to the Indians. To that end, the British government convened a series of “Round Table Conferences” in London.
- Salt Satyagraga brought Mahatma Gandhi to world attention. The march was widely covered by the European and American press.
Focus: GS I- Important Geophysical Phenomena
Why in news?
Heat Wave Conditions very likely in isolated pockets over Rajasthan, Vidarbha and interior Tamilnadu
- A heat wave is a period of abnormally high temperatures, more than the normal maximum temperature that occurs during the summer season in the North-Western and South Central parts of India.
- Heat waves typically occur between March and June, and in some rare cases even extend till July.
- Higher daily peak temperatures and longer, more intense heat waves are becoming increasingly frequent globally due to climate change.
Criteria for Heat Waves
- The heat wave is considered when the maximum temperature of a station reaches at least 40°C for Plains and at least 30°C for Hilly regions.
- If the normal maximum temperature of a station is less than or equal to 40°C, then an increase of 5°C to 6°C from the normal temperature is considered to be heat wave condition.
- Further, an increase of 7°C or more from the normal temperature is considered as severe heat wave condition.
- If the normal maximum temperature of a station is more than 40°C, then an increase of 4°C to 5°C from the normal temperature is considered to be heat wave condition. Further, an increase of 6°C or more is considered as severe heat wave condition.
- Additionally, if the actual maximum temperature remains 45°C or more irrespective of normal maximum temperature, a heat wave is declared.
- The health impacts of Heat Waves typically involve dehydration, heat cramps, heat exhaustion and/or heat stroke.
- It also causes heat cramps, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps and sweating.
- The extreme temperatures and resultant atmospheric conditions adversely affect people living in these regions as they cause physiological stress, sometimes resulting in death.
Reasons why India is experiencing more heat waves are:
- Magnified effect of paved and concrete surfaces in urban areas and a lack of tree cover.
- Urban heat island effects can make ambient temperatures feel 3 to 4 degrees more than what they are.
- More heat waves were expected as globally temperatures had risen by an average 0.8 degrees in the past 100 years. Night-time temperatures are rising too.
- Higher daily peak temperatures and longer, more intense heat waves are becomingly increasingly frequent globally due to climate change.
- High intensity of UV rays in medium-high heat wave zone.
- Combination of exceptional heat stress and a predominantly rural population makes India vulnerable to heat waves.
India Meteorological Department
Nodal: Ministry of Earth Sciences
- The India Meteorological Department (IMD) was established in 1875.
- It is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology.
VAN DHAN VIKAS YOJANA
Focus: GS II- Government policies and intervention, Prelims
Why in news?
Manipur emerges as the model state for Van Dhan Vikas Yojana
About Van Dhan Vikas Yojana:
Nodal: Ministry of Tribal affairs
- TRIFED is the implementation agency of the Van Dhan programme
- The program addresses the formidable problems that the Tribals face such as possession of land/house with no rights; restrictions in the collection of minor forest produce; exploitation by middlemen; displacement from national parks and wild sanctuaries, lack of development in forest villages etc.
- The Van Dhan Yojana or Van Dhan Scheme, a component of the The ‘Mechanism for Marketing of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) through Minimum Support Price (MSP) & Development of Value Chain for MFP’
- An initiative targeting livelihood generation for tribal gatherers and transforming them into entrepreneurs.
- The idea is to set-up tribal community-owned Van Dhan Vikas Kendras (VDVKs) in predominantly forested tribal districts.
- A Kendra shall constitute of 15 tribal SHGs, each comprising of up to 20 tribal NTFP (Non timber forest products) gatherers or artisans i.e. about 300 beneficiaries per Van Dhan Kendra.
- 100% Central Government Funded with TRIFED providing Rs. 15 lakhs for each 300 member Van Dhan Kendra.
Nodal: Ministry of tribal affairs
- The Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED) came into existence in 1987.
- It is a national-level apex organization functioning under the administrative control of Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
- The ultimate objective of TRIFED is socio-economic development of tribal people in the country by way of marketing development of the tribal products.
- TRIFED acts as a facilitator and service provider for tribes to sell their product.
- The approach by TRIFED aims to empower tribal people with knowledge, tools and pool of information so that they can undertake their operations in a more systematic and scientific manner.