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PIB 7th December 2020

Contents

  1. Light Detection and Ranging Survey (LiDAR)
  2. Interlinking of Rivers
  3. Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd. (IREDA)
  4. Central Zoo Authority (CZA)
  5. World Anti-Doping Agency

LIGHT DETECTION and RANGING SURVEY (LiDAR)

Focus: GS3; Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

Why in News?

National High Speed Rail Corporation Limited will be adopting Light Detection and Ranging Survey (LiDAR) technique using Laser enabled equipment mounted on a Helicopter for conducting ground survey for the preparation of Detailed Project Report for the proposed Delhi-Varanasi HSR corridor.

About LiDAR

  • The LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a remote sensing method that uses light in the form of a pulsed laser to measure ranges & variable distances.
  • The Lidar is a method for measuring distances by illuminating the target with laser light and measuring the reflection with a sensor.
  • These light pulses combined with other data recorded by the airborne system generate precise, three-dimensional information about the shape of the Earth and its surface characteristics.
  • The differences in laser return times and wavelengths can then be used to make digital 3-D representations of the target.
  • It has terrestrial, airborne, and mobile applications.
Lidar base principle 
oscillator 
beaml 
It measures the Doppler shTt Of 
radiation scattered by the natural 
aerosols 
transmitted light 
scattered and 
received light 
(with Doppler 
frequency shift) 
O 
o 
00 
o 
The wind carries natural aerosols such as: 
•Dust 
•Water droplets 
•Pollution 
•Pollen 
•Salt crystals
  • A LiDAR instrument principally consists of a laser, a scanner, and a specialized GPS receiver.
  • The Airplanes and helicopters are the most commonly used platforms for acquiring LiDAR data over broad areas.
LIDAR System (Light Detection And Ranging) Working and Applications

Applications of LiDAR

  • The LiDAR is used for agriculture, hydrology and water management systems and geology-related applications.
  • It is also used in Archaeology.
  • The LiDAR is used to collect high-density data in order to produce high-resolution maps.
  • The LiDAR sensors are being fitted under drones to create readings of the terrain, transmission lines, buildings, and trees.
  • The LiDAR is currently being used to provide 3D maps of the ground beneath.

Disadvantage of LiDAR

  • It can’t perform well in fog, rain, snow and dusty weather.
  • The LiDAR also struggles to detect a glass wall or door, which is why smartphone manufacturers and self-driving cars makers use LiDAR along with secondary cameras and sensors.

INTERLINKING OF RIVERS

Focus: GS1; Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

Why in News?

Interlinking of Rivers Programme is very important for enhancing water & food security of the country & for providing water to water scarce, drought prone and rain-fed farming areas: Shri Rattan Lal Kataria

About Interlinking of Rivers

  • In 1858, Arthur Cotton (British general and irrigation Engineer) came up with even more ambitious proposals such as connecting all major rivers of India, and interlinking of canals and rivers. He suggested drought-relief measures for Odisha.
  • The National River Linking Project (NRLP) formally known as the National Perspective Plan, envisages the transfer of water from water ‘surplus’ basins where there is flooding, to water ‘deficit’ basins where there is drought/scarcity, through inter-basin water transfer projects.
  • The interlinking of river project is a Civil Engineering project, which aims to connect Indian rivers through reservoirs and canals.
  • The farmers will not have to depend on the monsoon for cultivation and also the excess or lack of water can be overcome during flood or drought.
TAJIK 
AFGHANISTAN 
- PAKISTAN 
Arabian 
Sea 
HIMALAYAN COMPONENT 
O Ma n a s -San kOSh-TiSta-Ganga 
Kosi-Ghaghara 
Gandak•Ganga 
G hag 
Yamu na•Rajasthan 
Rajasth a S a 
CHINA 
(Tibet) 
Sone 
Mahanadi 
Indravati 
INDIA 
PROPOSED INTER BASIN 
WATER TRANSFER LINKS 
Chunar-Sone Barrage 
Sone Dam-Southern Tributaries of Ganga 
Ganga 
Kosi-M echi 
Farakka•S u nderbans 
Jogighopa-TiSta-Farakka (Alternate) 
Yartung Tsangpo (Brahmaputra) 
UTAN & 
napotta 
24 
BAN 
Bra 
LADE 
AN 
(B 
Nat 
.28 
Tapi 
17 
Bay 
of 
Bengal 
Cauve 
PENINSULAR COMPONENT 
(Manibhadra)-Godavari (Dow laiswaram) 
Godavari (InchampaIIi)-Krishna (Pulichintala) 
Godavari (Nagarjunasagar) 
G Oda (PO la (Vißyawada) 
Krishna (Almattff-pennar 
Krishna 
Krishna (Somasila) 
International Boundary 
Rivers 
Link Lines 
IAN 
23 
OCEAN 
pennar (Grand A nicut) 
Cauvery (KattaIaihVaigai•Gundar 
Par-Ta pi-Narmada 
Daman 
N Hemavat i 
p par 
LANKA 
Map not to Scale
  • Since the 1980s, the interlinking project has been managed by India’s National Water Development Agency (NWDA) under the Ministry of Water Resources.
  • It has been split into three parts as follows;-
  1. A northern Himalayan rivers interlink component.
  2. A southern peninsular component.
  3. An intra-State rivers linking component.
  • The NWDA has studied and prepared reports on 14 projects for the Himalayan region, 16 projects for the peninsular India component and 36 intra-State river interlinking projects.

Advantages of Interlinking River Project

  1. Irrigation
  2. Flood prevention
  3. Generation of electricity
  4. Transportation

Issues and Concerns of Interlinking River Project

  1. Ecological issues
  2. Aqua life
  3. Deforestation
  4. Areas getting submerged
  5. Displacement of people
  6. Dirtying of clean water

INDIAN RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AGENCY Ltd (IREDA)

Focus: GS2;Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

Why in News?

SJVN Limited, a PSU under Ministry of Power has entered an MoU with Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd. (IREDA).

About Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd. (IREDA)

  • The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA) was established on 11th March, 1987 as a Public limited Government Company under the Companies Act, 1956 and it promotes, develops and extends financial assistance for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency/Conservation Projects.
  • The IREDA’s Motto is “Energy for Ever.”
Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd(IREDA),Profile, Latest News,  Press Release, MOU, CSR
  • The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) is a Non-Banking Financial Institution under the administrative control of this Ministry for providing term loans for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.
  • It offers a credit enhancement guarantee scheme to support the issuance of bonds by wind and solar energy project developers. 
  • By providing unconditional and irrevocable partial credit guarantees, IREDA aims to enhance the credit rating of bonds for renewable energy projects, thereby improving their marketability and liquidity, and attracting lower-cost and longer-term funding for project developers. 
  • The amount raised by credit enhanced bonds shall only serve to repay existing debt partially or fully.
  • IREDA’s long-term objective is to contribute to the development of a bond market for renewable energy projects in India.

CENTRAL ZOO AUTHORITY (CZA)

Focus: GS2;Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

Why in News?

At the 37th General Body meeting of Central Zoo Authority chaired by Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Shri Prakash Javadekar two new zoos the Rajgir Zoo Safari in Nalanda, Bihar and Shaheed Ashfaque Ullah Khan Prani Udyaan in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh were granted recognition.

About Central Zoo Authority (CZA)

  • The Central Zoo Authority is the body of the government of India responsible for oversight of zoos.
  • It is an affiliate member of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.
  • The CZA was formed to bring Indian zoos up to international standards.
Central Zoo Authority (CZA) – Civilsdaily
  • The CZA is the body of the government responsible for oversight of zoos constituted under the section 38A of Wild Life (Protection) Act 1972.
  • The main objective of the authority is to complement the national effort in the conservation of wildlife.
  • The Standards and norms for housing, upkeep, health care and overall management of animals in zoos have been laid down under the Recognition of Zoo Rules, 1992.

Mission off CZA

  • To provide better upkeep and veterinary care to the wild animal housed in zoos in India to ensure their conservation through best practices of management and bringing education & awareness among the people.

VISION of CZA

  • To complement and strengthen the national efforts in conservation of the biodiversity of the country, particularly the fauna through the ex-situ conservation linked with in-situ practices.

Objective of CZA

  • To enforce minimum standards and norms for upkeep and healthcare of animals in Indian zoos and to control mushrooming of unplanned and ill-conceived zoos

Functions of CZA

1) To specify the minimum standards

2) To evaluate and assess the functioning of the zoos

3) To recognize or derecognize zoos;

4) To identify endangered species

5) To coordinate the acquisition exchange

6) To Identify priorities, themes and approval of Master Plan

7) To Provide technical assistance to Zoos

8) To release financial assistance to Zoos

9) To ensure maintenance of studbooks

10) To coordinate training of zoo personnel

11) To coordinate research and education

12) To perform such other functions

Composition of CZA

  • Apart from the chairman, it consists of 10 members and a member-secretary.
  • Almost all of them are officials in the Environment Ministry and NGO experts are those who are wildlife conservationists or retired forest officers.

WORLD ANTI-DOPING AGENCY

Focus: GS2; Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Why in News?

India to provide all support to World Anti-Doping Agency to ensure integrity of sport: Shri KirenRijiju

About World Anti-Doping Agency

  • The World Anti-Doping Agency is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) based in Canada to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports. 
World Anti-Doping Agency 
Agence mondial antidopage 
Formation 
Type 
Purpose 
Headquarters 
Coordinates 
Region served 
Official 
languages 
Key people 
Affiliations 
Website 
WORLD 
ANTI-DOPING 
AGENCY 
10 November lggg, 
21 years ago 
Non-profit 
Anti-doping in sport 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada 
45Z30'03'N 73z33'43'w 
International 
English, French 
Witold aaika, President 
International Olympic 
Committee 
WADA-AMA.org/en
  • The agency’s key activities include scientific research, education, development of anti-doping capacities, and monitoring of the World Anti-Doping Code, whose provisions are enforced by the UNESCO international convention against doping in sports.
  • It was established in 1999 as an international independent agency composed and funded equally by the sport movement and governments of the world.
  • Its foundation was initiated by the IOC to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports.
  • It is headquartered in Montreal, Canada.
  • Its key activities include scientific research, education, development of anti-doping capacities, and monitoring of the World Anti-Doping Code  the document harmonizing anti-doping policies in all sports and all countries.
  • The Integrity, Accountability and Excellence are the core values of the agency.

About International Olympic Committee (IOC)

  • It is a not-for-profit independent international organisation that is committed to building a better world through sport.
  • It was created on 23 June 1894 and is the supreme authority of the Olympic Movement.
  • It ensures the regular celebration of the Olympic Games, supports all affiliated member organisations and strongly encourages, by appropriate means, the promotion of the Olympic values.
International Olympic Committee 
Comité international olympique 
Formation 
23 June 1894, 126 years ago 
Type 
Sports federation 
Headquarters 
Lausanne, Switzerland 
Membership 
105 active members, 45 
honorary members, 2 honour 
members (Senegal and 
United States), 206 individual 
National Olympic Committees 
Official 
French (reference language), 
language 
English, and the host 
country's language when 
necessary 
Jacques Rogge[l] 
Honorary 
President 
Thomas Bach[l] 
President 
Anita DeFrantz[1] 
Vice 
Presidents 
Yu Zaiqing 
Ng ser Miang 
John Coates 
Director 
Christophe De Kepper 
General 
Website 
www olympic.orgr9 
Motto: Cit\us, Altius: Fort,ius 
(Lytim higher,
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