- World Neglected Tropical Diseases Day
- PM MITRA
- National Commission for Women
- Services e-Health Assistance and Teleconsultation (SeHAT)
- Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysalas
World Neglected Tropical Diseases Day
Focus: Prelims, GS-III: Science and Technology
Why in News?
‘World Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) Day’ is to be observed on 30th January as declared by the World Health Assembly.
What are Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD)?
- Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)– a diverse group of communicable diseases that prevail in tropical and subtropical conditions in 149 countries – affect more than one billion people and cost developing economies billions of dollars every year.
- Populations living in poverty, without adequate sanitation and in close contact with infectious vectors and domestic animals and livestock are those worst affected.
- Seven of the most common NTDs can be found in a number of countries—primarily in low- and middle-income countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
- Controlling the vectors (e.g., mosquitoes, black flies) that transmit these diseases and improving basic water, sanitation, and hygiene are highly effective strategies against these NTDs.
The NTD Crisis
- NTDs such as dengue, lymphatic filariasis and visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar) afflict 1 billion people worldwide, and yet, are not prioritised in the public health narrative in many parts of the world.
- India bears the largest burden of NTDs in the world, accounting for 40 per cent of the global lymphatic filariasis disease burden and almost a quarter of the world’s visceral leishmaniasis cases.
Government’s efforts regarding NTD
- In recent years, the government has made concerted efforts to address the nation’s NTD burden, especially visceral leishmaniasis and lymphatic filariasis which were slated to be eliminated by 2020 and 2021 respectively.
- India has already eliminated several other NTDs, including guinea worm, trachoma, and yaws.
- Measures taken include Mass Drug Administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis prevention in endemic districts and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) to control the breeding of sandflies that transmit visceral leishmaniasis.
- The Accelerated Plan for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (APELF) was launched in 2018, as part of intensifying efforts towards the elimination of NTDs.
- A WHO-supported regional alliance established by the governments of India, Bangladesh, and Nepal in 2005 to expedite early diagnosis and treatment of the most vulnerable populations and improve disease surveillance and control of sandfly populations (Kala-azar).
About the World Neglected Tropical Diseases Day declaration
- London Declaration on NTDs on 30th January, 2012 recognised the global burden of NTDs.
- Officials from the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, representatives from leading global pharmaceutical companies as well as representatives of several national governments met at London’s Royal College of physicians to pledge to end the diseases.
- The ongoing 74th World Health Assembly declared 30th January as ‘World Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) Day. The first World NTD Day was celebrated informally in 2020.
World Health Assembly (WHA)
- The World Health Assembly is the decision-making body of WHO.
- It is attended by delegations from all WHO Member States and focuses on a specific health agenda prepared by the Executive Board.
- The Health Assembly is held annually in Geneva, Switzerland (sometimes in special sessions).
- The main functions of the World Health Assembly are:
- To determine the policies of the Organization
- Appoint the Director-General
- Supervise financial policies
- Review and approve the proposed programme budget.
- Reporting to the Economic and Social Council in accordance with any agreement between the Organization and the United Nations.
- The Health Assembly is composed of delegates representing Member States.
- Each Member State is represented by not more than three delegates, one of whom is designated by the Member as chief delegate.
- These delegates are chosen from among persons most qualified by their technical competence in the field of health, preferably representing the national health administration of the Member.
Focus: GS II- Government Policies and Interventions
Why in News?
The President of India addressed the joint sitting of two Houses of the Parliament.
- The President, in his address, highlighted the PM MITRA Parks and various initiatives taken by the Centre to boost the integrated textile value chain.
About MITRA parks
- In a move to make the country’s textile sector a manufacturing and export hub, and create global export champions, India will set up seven textile parks over three years under the scheme of mega investment textile parks which was announced in Budget FY22.
- The parks to be setup over 1,000 acres of land with world class infrastructure, and plug-and-play facilities, will be addition to the more-than Rs. 10,000 crore production linked incentive (PLI) scheme for technical textiles and manmade fibre.
- The textiles ministry has proposed to develop seven Mega Integrated Textile Region and Apparel (MITRA) parks as part of a plan to double the industry size to $300 billion by 2025-26 aimed to position India as a fully integrated, globally competitive manufacturing and exporting hub.
- The parks are targeted to have uninterrupted water and power supply, common utilities and research and development labs.
- Similar parks already exist in China, Vietnam and Ethiopia where the entire textiles value chain is covered.
- India has already sanctioned 59 textile parks under the Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP), of which 22 have been completed. However, their slow progress due to delays in obtaining land and other statutory clearances from state governments and tardy fund mobilisation, have prompted the government to develop MITRA parks.
National Commission for Women
Focus: GS II- Governance
Why in News?
Prime Minister addressed 30th Foundation Day programme of National Commission for Women via video conference.
- Theme : ‘She The Change Maker’ is aimed at celebrating the achievements of women in different fields
About National Commission for Women:
- The National Commission for Women was set up as statutory body in January 1992 under the National Commission for Women Act, 1990.
- It received a large number of complaints and acted suo-moto in several cases to provide speedy justice.
- It took up the issue of child marriage, sponsored legal awareness programmes, Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats and reviewed laws such as Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961, PNDT Act 1994, Indian Penal Code 1860 and the National Commission for Women Act, 1990 to make them more stringent and effective.
- It organized workshops/consultations, constituted expert committees on economic empowerment of women, conducted workshops/seminars for gender awareness and took up publicity campaign against female foeticide, violence against women etc. in order to generate awareness in the society against these social evils.
To strive towards enabling women to achieve equality and equal participation in all spheres of life by securing her due rights and entitlements through suitable policy formulation, legislative measures, effective enforcement of laws, implementation of schemes/policies and devising strategies for solution of specific problems/situations arising out of discrimination and atrocities against women.
The Indian Woman, secure in her home and outside, fully empowered to access all her rights and entitlements, with opportunity to contribute equally in all walks of life.
- To review the Constitutional and Legal safeguards for women
- To recommend remedial legislative measures
- To facilitate redressal of grievances
- To advise the Government on all policy matters affecting women.
Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysalas
Focus: GS I- Art and Architecture
Why In News?
The Hoysala Temples of Belur, Halebid and Somnathapura in Karnataka have been finalized as India’s nomination for consideration as World Heritage for the year 2022-2023.
Belur: Chennakeshava Temple Complex
- Chennakeshava Temple, also referred to as Keshava, Kesava or Vijayanarayana Temple of Belur, is a 12th-century Hindu temple in the Hassan district of Karnataka state, India.
- It was commissioned by King Vishnuvardhana in 1117 CE, on the banks of the Yagachi River in Belur also called Velapura, an early Hoysala Empire capital.
- The temple was built over three generations and It was repeatedly damaged and plundered during wars, repeatedly rebuilt and repaired over its history.
- Chennakesava is a form of the Hindu god Vishnu.
- The temple is dedicated to Vishnu and has been an active Hindu temple since its founding.
- The temple is remarkable for its architecture, sculptures, reliefs, friezes as well its iconography, inscriptions and history.
- The temple artwork depicts scenes of secular life in the 12th century, dancers and musicians, as well as a pictorial narration of Hindu texts such as the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Puranas through numerous friezes.[
- It is a Vaishnava temple that reverentially includes many themes from Shaivism and Shaktism, as well as images of a Jina from Jainism and the Buddha from Buddhism.
- The Chennakeshava temple is a testimony to the artistic, cultural and theological perspectives in 12th century South India and the Hoysala Empire rule
Halebid: Hoysaleshwara Temple
- Hoysaleswara temple, also referred simply as the Halebidu temple, is a 12th-century Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva.
- It is the largest monument in Halebidu, a town in the state of Karnataka, India and the former capital of the Hoysala Empire.
- The temple was built on the banks of a large man-made lake, and sponsored by King Vishnuvardhana of the Hoysala Empire.
- At the zenith of the Hoysala empire, the capital was shifted from Belur to Halebid that was then known as Dorasamudhra.
- The Hoysaleshwara temple at Halebidu is the most exemplary architectural ensemble of the Hoysalas extant today.
- Built in 1121CE during the reign of the Hoysala King, Vishnuvardhana Hoysaleshwara.
- The temple is most well-known for the more than 240 wall sculptures that run all along the outer wall.
- Halebid has a walled complex containing of three Jaina basadi (temples) of the Hoysala period as well as a stepped well.
- The Hoysaleswara temple is a Shaivism tradition monument, yet reverentially includes many themes from Vaishnavism and Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, as well as images from Jainism.
Somnathpur: Kesava Temple
- The Chennakesava Temple, also referred to as Chennakeshava Temple and Keshava Temple, is a Vaishnava Hindu temple on the banks of River Kaveri at Somanathapura, Karnataka, India.
- The temple was consecrated in 1258 CE by Somanatha Dandanayaka, a general of the Hoysala King Narasimha III. It is located 38 kilometres (24 mi) east of Mysuru city.
- The ornate temple is a model illustration of the Hoysala architecture.
- The temple is enclosed in a courtyard with a pillared corridor of small shrines (damaged).
- The main temple in the center is on a high star-shaped platform with three symmetrical sanctums (garbha-griha), set in a square matrix oriented along the east–west and north–south axes.
- The western sanctum was for a statue of Kesava (missing), the northern sanctum of Janardhana and the southern sanctum of Venugopala, all forms of Vishnu.
- The sanctums share a common community hall (sabha-mandapa) with many pillars.
Services e-Health Assistance and Teleconsultation (SeHAT)
Focus: GS II- Health, Prelims
Why in News?
Hon’ble Defence Secretary took the novel initiative of providing Home Delivery or Self Pickup of Medicines to patients seeking consultation on SeHAT.
- Individuals desirous of their home delivery of self-pick-up may indicate their preference while logged in.
About Services e-Health Assistance and Teleconsultation (SeHAT)
- It is the tri-services teleconsultation service of the MoD designed for all entitled personnel and their families.
- It has been a great example of innovation, especially at a time when the nation is fighting the COVID-19.
- SeHAT stay home OPD is a patient-to-doctor system where the patient can consult a doctor remotely through the internet using his Smartphone, laptop, Desktop or Tablet.
- The consultation occurs through video, audio and chat at the same time.
- It aims to provide quality healthcare services to patients from the comfort of their homes.
- Safe and structured video-based clinical consultations between a doctor in a hospital, and a patient within the confines of his or her home anywhere in the country, have been enabled.
- It is designed to be extremely simple and easy to use, which requires minimal effort from the users.
- The user does not need to pay anything to seek teleconsultation
- Since its launch, there have been more than 10,000 successful teleconsultations on SeHAT, with a strong team of 2000 plus doctors onboard.